Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence and Security

Title:                      Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence and Security

Author:                  K. Lee Lerner

Lerner, K. Lee (2004) and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, eds. Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence and Security. Detroit, MI: Thomson/Gale

LCCN:    2003011097

JF1525.I6 E63 2004

Date Updated:  May 5, 2017

Review by Winston Bloom[1]

Of the approximately 800 to 850 articles in this set, I have reviewed nearly forty entries across a range of subtopics. Although I find the A-Z format to be cumbersome when attempting to link information related to a particular topic, the overall organization is logical and friendly to the average reader. The photos and article content make the set as readable as many single topic books. It is hard to turn the page without finding interesting or valuable reading on a topic recently in the news.

The set is at its best when tackling science and technology related topics. Written and edited by scientists and teachers for the general public, the articles often take the space to explain fundamental science concepts and how they relate to emerging security related technologies. The science articles are first-rate and show consistent effort to make tough and complex topics understandable.

The books set a modest goal of portraying the impact of modern science and technology on security issues, but the editors and writers achieve more by including interesting short articles on historical topics that also emphasize the impact of the science and technology on the history of espionage and intelligence. The selection of articles shows a crafted regard not to tread the well-worn path of prior books on spycraft, and the omissions allow the authors to explore fresh angles to old stories. While the political and historical articles often seem condensed, and in places oversimplified, they add readability, usefulness, and context to the more technical articles.

The non-science writing is utilitarian, but having the wide range of topics related to countries and organizations in one set is handy. Although certain articles may subtly convey a particular author’s bias, the overall tone of the book is decidedly balanced and fair. In fact, although apparently written before the conclusion of the recent war in Iraq, and the rise of issues related to the search for WMD stockpiles, the book exhibits an eerie insight into the complexities of the intelligence issues and failures related the current WMD controversy.

This is an excellent general resource for high school students and the general public. The books are a sound starter resource for undergraduate students. Libraries, newsrooms, and emergency planners would find this encyclopedia a worthwhile investment.

______________________

In addition to the contents of this book, and as a proper addendum, I am adding my own biographical list of names:

Aitken, James (1752-1777): British criminal who volunteered to help the American cause in 1776 by setting fire to the British fleet in Portsmouth, England; captured and hanged. Also known as “John the Painter.” Warner, Jessica (2004). John the Painter: Terrorist of the American Revolution. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press. LOC: 2004050655

Ambler, Eric ( 1909-1998): British thriller author credited with producing a harder-edged spy thriller, especially the 1939 A Coffin for Dimitrios.

Ames, Aldrich ( 1941- ): CIA officer who spied for money for the Soviets and Russians for nine years, from 1985 until his arrest in 1994; sentenced to life in prison. His actions exposed many covert operations and led to the death of about 10 spies.

Andre, Major John ( 1750–1780): British intelligence officer and handler of Benedict Arnold, captured out of uniform as spy in Tarrytown, New York; hanged and buried with honor in Great Britain.

Angleton, James Jesus (1917-1987): Former OSS agent, later the CIA’s expert on counterintelligence, who after being tricked by his friend-the Soviet spy Kim Philby-engaging in a hunt for moles in his own organization that threatened its cohesion, was forced to resign in 1974. His actions earned him the nickname “Gray Ghost.” He called counterintelligence a “wilderness of mirrors.”

Arnold, Benedict (1741-1801): American Revolutionary War hero whose bitterness led him to offer to betray West Point to the British; when his betrayal was detected, he fled to the British and ended his life in exile.

Babington, Anthony ( 1561-1586): English Catholic gentleman at the center of conspiracy to kill Queen Elizabeth I and restore Catholicism to England.

Baden-Powell, Robert (1857- 1941 ): British military attache and founder of the Boy Scouts movement.

Bancroft, Edward (1744-1821 ): American scientist who spied on Benjamin Franklin in Paris for the British.

Beria, Lavrenti (1899-1953): Josef Stalin’s fellow Georgian and chief of his secret police, feared and ambushed by his own comrades in the Soviet leadership after Stalin’s death.

bin Laden, Osama (1957-2011 ): Son of a wealthy Saudi family, organizer of religious warfare in Afghanistan during the Soviet invasion, organizer of al-Qaeda and its September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. Finally tracked down and assassinated in Pakistan in 2011.

Blondel (fl. late 12th century A.D.): Legendary medieval troubadour who was supposed to have located the imprisoned King Richard I of England by covert means.

Booth, John Wilkes (1838-1865): Southern agent and assassin of President Abraham Lincoln.

Borgia, Lucrezia (1480–1519): Italian noblewoman who was rumored to be a talented poisoner with political motivations.

Boursicot, Bernard ( 1944- ): French embassy official in Beijing who fell in love with the Chinese agent Shi Pei Pu and spied for China until he was arrested in 1983.

Bowser, Mary Elizabeth (1839-?): African American servant in the White House of the Confederacy, passing secrets to Union side.

Boyd, Belle ( 1844-1900): The Siren of the Confederacy, a celebrity spy for the South who later took her story to the stage.

Buchan, John (1875-1940): Tum of the century thriller writer, author of The Thirty-Nine Steps (1915) and Greenmantle (1916).

Bush, George H. W. (1924- ): Director of the CIA from 1975 to 1977 and 41″ president of the United States.

Campion, Edmund (1540-1581): English Jesuit captured on mission to England; tried, executed, and canonized as a saint by the Catholic Church.

Canaris, Admiral Wilhelm (1887-1945): Chief of the German Abwehr military intelligence, opposing some aspects of the Nazi regime; theAbwehr was dissolved in 1944, and Canaris was arrested on suspicion of plotting the assassination of Hitler. He was hanged in the last days of the war by the Nazis.

Casanova, Giovanni Giacomo (1725-1798): Famed Venetian lover and spy.

Cavell, Edith ( 1865-1915): British nurse executed by the German army in occupied Belgium during World War I for helping people escape.

Chambers, Whittaker (1901-1961): Former American Soviet courier for espionage, who broke with his earlier faith and authored Witness (1952); accused Alger Hiss of spying.

Chesney, Sir George Tomkyns (1830-1895): Author of the 1871 invasion thriller The Battle of Darking, which inspired a spy panic and many imitators.

Child, Julia (1912-2004): Later a noted television chef, she was a member of the OSS and worked on recipes for shark repellent.

Childers, Erskine (1870-1922): Author of what is considered the first true spy thriller, The Riddle of the Sands ( 1903), and later a secret agent and partisan of the Irish cause, for which he was executed.

Church, Benjamin (1734-1778): Early American patriot, activist, and chief medical officer of the Continental Army, in fact spying for the British . Caught by George Washington but released and allowed to go into exile.

Churchill, Winston (1874-1965): Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1940 to 1945, in its most difficult hour, standing alone against Nazi Germany, who ordered that occupied Europe be “set ablaze” by SOE operations.

Clancy, Tom (1947- ): American best-selling and prolific author of technological thrillers, whose career was launched by President Reagan’s praise for his novel The Hunt for Red October (1984).

Cooper, James Fenimore (1789-1851 ): Author of The Spy (1821 ), on espionage in the American Revolution.

Cyrus the Great (c, 600 B.C.): Famed Persian ruler and supposed builder of the Persian road system who used spies, or the threat of spies, to keep his own administrators in line.

Darragh, Lydia ( 1729-1789): Philadelphian who passed to Americans information overheard from British officers quartered in her house.

Daumantas ( 1921-1951 ): Pseudonym of Lithuanian resistance fighter Juozas Luksa, fighting against Soviet occupation after World War II, trained by Western intelligence services, returned to Lithuania in 1950, then betrayed and killed by Soviets the next year.

d’Eon, Chevalier (1728-1810): French spy who dressed as both a man and a woman and whose true sex was a matter of famous dispute; d’Eon was sent on secret missions to Russia and Britain, then ended life in British exile while threatening to blackmail the king of France.

Donovan, William “Wild Bill” (1883-1959): Decorated American hero of the First World War; director of the wartime OSS.

Dreyfus, Captain Alfred (1859-1935): French Jewish officer falsely convicted in 1894 of spying for Germany; only acquitted years later after the protracted “Dreyfus Affair.”

Dulles, Allen (1893-1969): American diplomat, lawyer, and long-serving and very independent director of the CIA from 1953 to 1961; let go after the Bay of Pigs disaster.

Dzerzhinshky, Feliks (1877-1926): Known as “Iron Felix,” this Polish aristocrat led the Cheka secret police of the Bolsheviks.

Fawkes, Guy (1570-1606): English mercenary with a leading role in the failed 1605 Gunpowder Plot.

Fleming, Ian (1908-1964): Naval intelligence officer in World War II, author of the James Bond spy novels and also author of literature for children, including Chitty Chitty Bang Bang.

Follett, Ken (1949- ): British writer, author of numerous thrillers set during World War II.

Fouche, Joseph (l 758?-1820): Napoleon’s chief of police, alternately needed and distrusted.

Friedman, William (1891-1969): Talented American code breaker who had worked under Herbert Yardley breaking German codes during World War I; he was put in charge of the new Signal Intelligence Service, established in 1930, and led the team that broke the Japanese codes during World War II, in Operation MAGIC.

Fritz, Samuel (1654-1728): Bohemian-born German Jesuit who explored the Amazon and was mistaken for a spy.

Fuchs, Klaus ( 1911-1988): German-born British scientist, committed communist, and the most important asset of the Soviets in the Western atomic bomb project. Worked in the United States and passed secrets to the Soviets. Identified in the VENONA transcripts, confessed, and on release from prison moved to East Germany to work at a nuclear research institute there.

Furst, Alan (1941- ): American author of spy novels set in and just before World War II (especially recommended are Dark Star and The $ I Polish Officer).

Fusoris, Jean (c. 1365-1436): French canon ofNotre Dame Cathedral tried for spying for the English during the Hundred Years’ War.

Gapon, Georgi (1870-1906): Russian Orthodox priest and organizer of the demonstration in 1905 that led to the Bloody Sunday massacre in St. Petersburg; afterwards killed by revolutionaries.

Garcia, Juan Pujol “Garbo” (1912-1988): A young Spaniard who became the centerpiece of the British Twenty Committee to doublecross German intelligence. He had volunteered to spy for the British and had 27 fake agents in his stable. He played a key role in misleading the Nazis on the Allied landing in Normandy.

Gehlen, Reinhard ( 1902-1979): Chief of German military intelligence on the Eastern Front, who at World War II’s end surrendered to the Americans with his information on the Soviets, set up a new intelligence organization (including many former comrades from Nazi Germany), which in 1956 became the West German Bundesnachrichtendienst-the Federal Intelligence Service.

Gifford, Gilbert (1560-1590): Walsingham’s double agent inside the Babington Plot.

Gold, Harry (1910-1972): American chemist who served as courier between the atomic spies and their Soviet handlers; identified by Klaus Fuchs on his arrest, he was arrested and jailed until 1965.

Greene, Graham ( 1904-1991 ): British author and former MI6 intelligence officer whose works also explore morality in spying, especially the novel Our Man in Havana (1958).

Greenglass, David ( 1922- ): Brother-in-law of Julius Rosenberg who served as an agent inside the Los Alamos laboratory; arrested in 1950 and released in 1960.

Greenhow, Rose (1813-1864): Washington hostess and socialite who passed military secrets to the Confederacy; she was arrested, released, and sent by the South to Europe on a public relations tour, but she perished on her return to America.

Guillaume, Gunther ( 1927-1995): East German spy who became an advisor to Chancellor Willy Brandt in West Germany and whose exposure led to Brandt’s resignation.

Hale, Nathan (1755-1776): American spy captured and hanged by the British in New York, whose last words were reported to be “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”

Hall, Reginald “Blinker” ( 1870-1943): British military attache and later director of British code breaking in Room 40 of the Admiralty during World War I.

Hanssen, Robert (1944- ): An FBI agent who used subtle tradecraft to spy for the Soviets for more than 20 years, beginning in 1979. Through his communications to the Soviets, Hanssen never revealed his identity to his handlers. He was arrested in 2001 after a former Soviet agent pinpointed him. His activities did vast damage and cost two American agents their lives.

Heydrich, Reinhard (1904-1942): Model Nazi, protege of Heinrich Himmler, in charge of the RSHA, and organizer of the Final Solution. He was assassinated by Czech agents.

Himmler, Heinrich (1900-1945): Failed chicken farmer and master of bureaucracy who built the SS and Gestapo empire within the German empire.

Hiss, Alger (1904-1996): American civil servant accused of spying for the Soviets who always maintained his innocence.

Hitler, Adolf (1889-1945): German dictator, one of the greatest mass murderers in history, who inaugurated genocide by claiming a world conspiracy against Germany.

Hoover, J. Edgar (1895-1972): Director of the American FBI for decades, cultivator of his own legend, and controversial figure.

Ivan the Terrible (r. 1547-1584): Tsar Ivan IV of Russia, brutal and paranoid ruler who established the oprichnina regime of early modern secret police.

Kautilya (4th century B.C.): Ancient Indian statesman and author of the Arthashastra text on statecraft, which included advice on espionage.

Keegan, John (1934- ): Most notable military historian; British author of the thoughtful and skeptical work Intelligence in War (2003).

Kent, Tyler G. (1911-1988): American embassy code clerk convicted by the British of spying during World War II.

Kipling, Rudyard (1865-1936): Writer from British India, imperialist, Nobel Prize winner for literature, and creator of the boy spy hero in his novel Kim (1901).

Knowlton, Thomas (1740-1776): American founder of the Knowlton Rangers, the precursors to later American Special Forces.

Lawrence, Thomas Edward (1888-1935): Mythologized as “Lawrence of Arabia,” a British archaeologist who helped inspire Arab revolt in World War I and suffered from his legendary status after the war.

le Carre, John ( 1931- ): Pen name of British author David Cornwell, whose former career was in MIS and MI6; author of novels featuring disillusioned spies, such as The Spy Who Came In from the Cold ( 1963) and Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy (1974).

Lengsfeld, Vera (1952- ): Member of the opposition in East Germany, later a politician in united Germany after 1990, who discovered from her Stasi file that her husband had been spying on her.

Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich (1870-1924): Leader of the Bolshevik revolutionaries in Russia, whence he returned in 191 7 by a train through Germany.

Metternich, Klemens von ( 1773-1859): Prince and chief minister of the Habsburg Austrian Empire; chief counterrevolutionary of the Concert of Europe after Napoleon’s defeat.

Litvinenko, Alexander (1962-2006): Former KGB and FSB agent, turned fierce critic of Vladimir Putin and the Russian government; assassinated by radioactive poison in London in 2006.

Lockhart, Robert Bruce ( 1887-1970): British diplomat sent to Bolshevik Russia and colleague of Sidney Reilly. Arrested by the Bolsheviks for a conspiracy to assassinate Vladimir Ilyich Lenin.

Maclean, Donald (1913-1983): Member of the Cambridge spy ring who in 1944 was first secretary at the British embassy in Washington and became the main coordinator of American-British cooperation on atomic weapons. Warned of his upcoming arrest by Kim Philby, Maclean and Guy Burgess fled to the Soviet Union in 1951.

Markov, Georgi (1929-1978): Bulgarian dissident working for the BBC in London, where he was assassinated with a poisoned umbrella by the KGB in 1978.

Mata Hari (1876-1917): Dutch-born exotic dancer and courtesan-tumed-spy in World War I who was executed by the French.

Maugham, W. Somerset (1874-1965): British author credited with being the first in a series of authors of spy fiction who themselves had worked in intelligence, he had been a British spy in World War I and wrote Ashenden, or The British Agent ( 1928) based on his experiences.

McCarthy, Joseph (1908-1957): Republican senator from Wisconsin who became famous and controversial for his charges of communist infiltration of American government and the military, until the wildness of his charges discredited him and led to his censure in 1954.

Mielke, Erich ( 1907-2000): Long-serving Stasi chief ( 1957-1989). He was convicted, decades previously, of murdering two policemen but was never held to account for the killings at the East German border or the activities of the Stasi.

Morozov, Pavel (1918-1932): Mythologized figure in Stalin’s Soviet Union, praised by the state for denouncing his own family.

Mossadegh, Mohammad (1882-1967): Charismatic prime minister oflran, deposed by the CIA and British intelligence services in a coup when he threatened to nationalize the Iranian oil industry.

Orczy, Baroness Emmuska (1865-1947): Author of the influential adventure novel, The Scarlet Pimpernel (1905).

Oswald, Lee Harvey (1939-1963): A drifter and former defector to the Soviet Union who assassinated U.S. president John F. Kennedy and then was himself killed while in custody.

Palmer, Alexander Mitchell (1872-1936): U.S. attorney general who led the Palmer Raids against radicals in 1919 and 1920, promoted J. Edgar Hoover.

Pelton, Ronald (1942- ): Former National Security Agency officer who retired in 1979 but then for financial gain approached the Soviet Embassy with an offer to pass along information. He was convicted in 1986 and is now serving three life sentences.

Penkovsky, Oleg (1919-1963): Double agent for the Americans and British inside Soviet military intelligence, the GRU, providing crucial information during the Cuban Missile Crisis and then soon after caught and executed.

Philby, Harold “Kim” (1912-1988): Considered the most important spy of the cold war, Philby joined the Cambridge spy ring and went on to a high career in British intelligence while spying for the Soviets until his escape to the Soviet Union in 1963. There he authored My Silent War (1968) and was honored on a postage stamp.

Pinkerton, Allan (1819-1884): founder of the private detective agency bearing his name, he served as Lincoln’s Union spymaster in the Civil War but was sidelined due to problems with his tradecraft.

Pollard, Jonathan Jay (1954- ): American naval intelligence analyst who spied for the Israelis, convicted and given a life sentence in 1987.

Polo, Marco (1254-1324): Famed Venetian explorer and merchant who gathered intelligence from the Near East to China.

Powers, Gary (1929-1977): Pilot of the U-2 spy plane downed over the Soviet Union in 1960 that caused an international crisis.

Putin, Vladimir (1952- ): Former KGB and FSB officer who became president of Russia after Boris Yeltsin.

Reilly, Sidney ( 1874-1925): British master spy, born in Russia, who may have been one of the models for James Bond. He was the nemesis of the Bolsheviks, who finally lured him back to Russia and, probably, to his death.

Richebourg (1768-1858): Shortest spy in recorded history, able to disguise himself as a child to evade French revolutionaries.

Richelieu, Armand-Jean du Plessis, cardinal and due de (1585-1642):

French cardinal and chief minister to King Louis XIII, practitioner of power politics and constructor of the French secret services.

Richer, Marthe (1889-1982): Female airplane pilot who spied on German officials in neutral Spain during World War I.

Rosenberg, Ethel (1915-1953 ): Wife of Julius Rosenberg, sister of David Greenglass, member of the Communist Party, convicted of spying in 1951, and executed in 1953-a sentence that is still controversial.

Rosenberg, Julius (1918-1953): Electrical engineer, member of the Communist Party, and key member of the Soviet atomic spy ring in the United States, identified by the VEN ONA transcripts, convicted of spying in 1951, and executed in 1953.

Schragmiiller, Dr. Elisabeth (1887-1940): German professor-spy who aimed to teach spy methods methodically; she was the inspiration for the legend of the Beautiful Blond of Antwerp.

Schulmeister, Karl (1770-1853): One of Napoleon’s master spies, who infiltrated the Austrian military.

Sebold, William ( 1899-1970?): German American who was pressured into becoming a spy for Germany but then became a double agent, helping the FBI round up Nazi spies in the United States from 1939 to 1941.

Shi Pei Pu (1938-2009): Chinese agent who seduced Bernard Boursicot, claiming to be a woman and to have had his son, later arrested in France in 1983.

Smalls, Robert (1839-1915): African American pilot who sailed a ship out of Charleston harbor to the Union forces in 1862.

Stalin, Josef (1879-1953): Soviet dictator, successor to Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, and one of the greatest mass murderers in history. Unleashed spy panics in the Soviet Union to justify purges and terror.

Stieber, Wilhelm (1818-1882): Bismarck’s German spymaster, who set a new standard for methodical collection of intelligence and a new low in personal use of his post.

Stimson, Henry (1867-1950): American secretary of state who in 1929 famously declared that gentlemen do not read each other’s mail, condemning espionage.

Strong, Anna Smith ( 1740-1812): American patriot who signaled messages to the Culper Ring of spies on her washing line in code.

Sun Tzu (fl. 5’h century B.C.): Chinese philosopher and author of The Art of/tVar.

Tallmadge, Benjamin (1754-1835): First director of American intelligence during the War for Independence, serving under George Washington.

Tanaka Giichi ( 1864-1929): Japanese military attache in Russia and able observer of the Trans-Siberian railway.

Throckmorton, Francis (1554–1584): English Catholic gentleman at the center of a plot, exposed in 1583, for a French invasion of England that would depose Elizabeth I and put Mary, Queen of Scots, on the English throne.

Tubman, Harriet (1822-1913): African American organizer of the Underground Railroad and agent during the Civil War.

Turing, Alan (1912-1954): Brilliant Cambridge mathematician and visionary who proposed the computer and led the efforts at decoding German Enigma machine messages at Bletchley Park during World War II; he committed suicide after the war.

van Lew, Elizabeth (1818-1900): Northern sympathizer living in Richmond, Virginia, who directed intelligence to the Union while posing as a madwoman.

von Braun, Werner ( 1912-1977): German rocket engineer instrumental in the development of the V-2 rocket at the end of the war, controversial for the use of slave labor, and recruited for scientific work in the United States and eventually with NASA.

von Rintelen, Franz (1877-1949): German agent sent to the U.S. to sabotage American aid for the Allies in World War I; arrested and jailed.

Walker, John Anthony (1937- ): A retired U.S. Navy radioman who recruited his brother, son, and best friend into a spy ring for the Soviets and continued his activities even after retiring from the navy in 1976. He was arrested by the FBI at a dead-drop after his wife turned him in.

Walsingham, Sir Francis (c. 1532-1590): Queen Elizabeth I’s spymaster and principal secretary of the Privy Council.

Washington, George (1732-1799): Father of his country and American spymaster (also Agent 711 ), organizing intelligence gathering and disinformation in the War for Independence.

Webster, Timothy (1822-1862): Pinkerton’s ablest agent in the South, who was captured and executed by the Confederacy due to mistakes in tradecraft and betrayal.

Wickham, William (1761-1840): British agent who established a spy network from Switzerland to spy on France during the French Revolution and Napoleon’s rule.

Wilson, Charles (1933-2010): Democratic Congressman from Texas who championed CIA aid to the anti-Soviet resistance in Afghanistan; subject of the film Charlie Wilson :S• War.

Wolf, Markus (1923-2006): For 34 years, director of the Stasi’s foreign spying through the HVA. He was long known as “the man without a face” as Western intelligence agencies did not have a photograph of him for many years.

Yagoda, Genrikh (1891-1938): One of a succession of Stalin’s secret police chiefs, used as an instrument of terror and then executed, like his successor Nikolai Yezhov.

Yardley, Herbert (1889-1958): American code breaker who ran the Black Chamber of the State Department in the interwar period, breaking Japanese codes and provoking Henry Stimson.

[1] Winston Bloom at Amazon.com

 

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