Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage And Covert Operations

Title:                      Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage And Covert Operations

Author:                  Paul W. Blackstock

Blackstock, Paul W.(1978) and Schaf, Frank L. Jr. Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage And Covert Operations: A Guide to Information Sources. Detroit: Gale Research Co.

LCCN:    74011567

Z6724.I7 B55

Subjects

Date Updated:  April 14, 2016

Reviewed by George C. Constantinides[1]

When it appeared, this work was the most comprehensive annotated bibliography of its type yet published. The authors had excellent professional and academic credentials for the task: both had served in U.S. military intelligence, and the late Blackstock had specialized in various aspects of intelligence, especially in Soviet activities and covert action. The authors regarded this as a highly selective bibliography designed “primarily for the general American public,” and it is restricted mainly to books and articles in English. However, they also saw it as possibly of use to political analysts and students of international and foreign affairs. The book is divided into a number of intelligence and geographic categories and contains a selected bibliography of fifty titles, a general critique of the literature, and a chapter on general bibliographic resources.

This very useful breakdown results in an individual work’s sometimes being listed under different categories-for example, two of Deacon’s books are listed in a total of five categories. Introductory essays are helpful to the lay reader. However, readers may not find acceptable the failure to differentiate adequately between authorized disclosures of a country such as the USSR and those of a U.S. Senate committee in the section titled “General Critique,” and they will spot a questionable item about George Blake’s having been ordered by British intelligence to work for the Soviets.

Despite its many praiseworthy qualities, among which must be mentioned some good judgmental annotations of certain books, this work contains a number of errors on particular books. It refers to Foot’s SOE in France[2] as a definitive work, ignoring Foot’s own catalog of the limitation to his research; Krivitsky’s spurious rank is repeated and his memoirs only called fairly reliable; the designation “definitive” is used more than it should be, as in the case of Lasby’s Project Paperclip[3]; McCoy’s The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia[4] is called carefully documented, which is not the case; McChristian’s The Role of Military Intelligence 1965-1967[5] is described as comprehensive, which, since it is unclassified, it obviously is not, as DIS’s Bibliography of Intelligence Literature[6] pointed out. Cookridge’s The Many Sides of George Blake[7] certainly is not “the full story.” To call Cave Brown’s Bodyguard of Lies[8] “the single best source of information on intelligence and deception operations in World War II” misses the many serious and basic faults of the book; Young’s Rutland of Jutland[9] is not “excellent” because the author missed material of critical importance; Stevenson’s A Man Called Intrepid[10] does not receive the sharp criticism it deserves. The same is true of Deacon’s A History of the British Secret Service[11], which is only called “an important work.” The annotation for Scotland’s The London Cage[12] is incorrect, and John Schwarzwalder, the author of We Caught Spies[13], is called Schwarzelder. Blackstock and Schaf are not aware of the errors in Wighton’s Pin-Stripe Saboteur[14] cited in Foot’s SOE in France[15]. The major shortcomings of Winterbotham’s The Ultra Secret[16] are not mentioned, and neither are those of Copeland’s Without Cloak or Dagger[17]. Kim’s The Central Intelligence Agency[18] is described as a collection of essays on secrecy when it actually ranges beyond that. Farago’s The Game of the Foxes[19] and The Broken Seal[20] also escape any of the adverse comments that have been leveled against them by others. The verdict on Seth’s Encyclopedia of Espionage[21] is incomplete; it is called “a remarkable compilation” despite Blackstock and Schaf’s awareness of its gaps. The shortcomings of Pinto’s Spy Catcher[22] are not indicated, and Rowan’s work[23], though prodigious, is hardly “exhaustive,” as it is described.

This is a review by the Defense Intelligence School.[24]

At one time, this was the only currently published bibliography of its kind available. It is of some limited use to the professional intelligence officer, and of utility to lay libraries and readers. Some of its annotations should be used circumspectly. A helpful feature is the inclusion of titles of selected periodical articles.

Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage, and Covert Operations

This book by Paul W. Blackstock and Frank L. Schaf[25] is a now dated but still valuable guide to information sources on the topics of the title. Below is an outline of the contents. The non-book entries in the work are listed herein along with the divisions listed in the Contents. References to larger works are indicated by hyperlinks to those works in the main Spyinggame blog.

Contents

Acknowledgments

Introduction: A General Critique of the Literature

Part I. General Bibliographic Resources

Chapter 1. Comprehensive Bibliographies

Chapter 2. Selective Bibliographies

Chapter 3. Encyclopedia Articles

Part II. Strategic Intelligence

Chapter 4. Theory, Doctrine, and Organization

  1. United States (General Works and Surveys)
  2. The Soviet Union
  3. The Special Bibliography of Soviet Sources
  4. Books and Articles (Western Sources)
  5. Great Britain
  6. Germany
  7. France .and Other Countries (Canada, Israel, Switzerland, Chlna, and Japan)

Chapter 5. Utilization of Intelligence

  1. Bocks, Monographs, Dissertations
  2. Articles, Pamphlets, Chapters from Books
  3. Government Documents
  4. The Pentagon Papers

Chapter 6. Military Intelligence

  1. Books, Training Manuals, Texts, Memoirs
  2. Articles

Chapter 7, Counterintelligence and Security: United States

  1. Books and Monographs
  2. Articles and Reports

Chapter 8. Secrecy and Security versus Freedom of Information and the Right to Privacy

  1. Books and Monographs
  2. Articles and Reports

Chapter 9. Counterintelligence and Security, The USSR

  1. Books
  2. Articles and Reports

Chapter 10. Scientific and Technical Intelligence

  1. Books
  2. Articles and Reports

Chapter 11. Communications and Electronic Intelligence

  1. Books
  2. Articles and Reports

Chapter 12. Escape and Evasion

Chapter 13. Industrial Espionage

Part llI. Espionage and Counterespionage

Chapter 14. Espionage

  1. General Surveys
  2. Anthologies of Spy Stories
  3. General Anthologies
  4. Women in Espionage
  5. The United States
  6. The Soviet Union
  7. General Surveys
  8. Survey Articles
  9. Memoirs and Biographies
  10. Great Britain
  11. General Surveys
  12. Memoirs and Biographies
  13. Germany
  14. The History of Espionage
  15. Before 1914
  16. The American Revolution, 1775-83
  17. The French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars, 1789-1815
  18. The American Civil War, 1861-65
  19. World War I and the lnterwar Period
  20. Espionage in World War II
  21. General Works and Memoirs
  22. Soviet-Controlled Networks (Rado-Rossler and the Red Orchestra)
  23. Selected Espionage Fiction

Chapter 15. Counterespionage

  1. General Books
  2. General Articles
  3. Memoirs
  4. Counterespionage Networks or Operations
  5. The Double-Cross System
  6. Operation Nordpol (North Pole)

Part IV. Covert Operations

Chapter 16. General Works and Surveys

Chapter 17. SOE—The British Special Operations Executive

  1. General Works
  2. Memoirs and Biographies

Chapter 18. OSS—The U.S. Office of Strategic Services

  1. General Works
  2. Memoirs and Biographies
  3. Networks and Operations
  4. OSS in the Far East and Southeast Asia

Chapter 19. CIA: Covert Operations

Chapter 20. The Soviet Union: Partisan Warfare and Political Warfare

Chapter 21. Disinformation, Deception, Frauds, and Forgeries

  1. Disinformation
  2. Deception in World War II
  3. Gleiwitz and Related Border Provocations
  4. Barbarossa: German Deception and the Invasion of the USSR
  5. Operation “North Pole”: Radio (Funkspiel) Deception in Holland
  6. Operation “Mincemeat”: Deception before the Allied Invasion of Sicily
  7. The “Double-Cross System”: Deception prior to the Normandy Invasion
  8. Frauds and Forgeries

Selected Bibliography of Fifty Titles


 

Introduction

A GENERAL CRITIQUE OF THE LITERATURE

The importance of intelligence, espionage, and covert political operations can hardly be overemphasized in a world which lives under the shadow of thermonuclear holocaust. Each of the nuclear powers regards intelligence as essential to its security, makes use of espionage to collect information, and employs covert operations as a substitute for the open use of military force. All states make use of counterespionage agencies or techniques to thwart the positive intelligence efforts directed at themselves by their neighbors and, if possible, to abort any covert operations of which they may be the targets. Given the importance of intelligence, the lack of a selected, annotated bibliography on the subject is surprising, and it is hoped that this reference guide will help meet the need. However, there are reasons for the gap. Nat only does the subject have many politically sensitive ramifications, but even the terms used are confused and confusing. Expressions such as “Soviet (or U.S.) intelligence” are used as a kind of shorthand for all the intelligence and security agencies of the state concerned. The primary function of such agencies is the collection, evaluation, and dissemination of information for decision-making purposes. Only a fraction of such information is collected by espionage agents using clandestine techniques and methods. Nevertheless, popular usage confuses espionage, which is only one means of collecting information, with the entire intelligence function. Melodramatic spy novels and motion pictures reinforce this mistaken notion.

Because there is so much confusion in terminology, the student or businessman seeking a comprehensive view of the subject must look through the card index files of whatever library he uses under a variety of headings such as “Intelligence,” “Espionage and Counterespionage,” and “Secret Service.”

Roughly nine tenths of the serious literature on intelligence has been written in English or German, But the scholar using German libraries and sources will find a similar confusion of terms such as Nachrichtendienst (“Intelligence Service”), Geheimdienst (“Secret Service”), and Spionage (“espionage”).

General Critique

Whatever library he uses, the inquirer will find its holdings heavily weighted in favor of espionage and espionage fiction in the “great, true spy stories” tradition. The serious literature dealing with intelligence, its production and use, as a basis for foreign policy decision making tends to be lost in the flood of glamorized memoirs or historical accounts of the “now it can be told” variety. The serious student will quickly discover that the relevant literature is based almost entirely on secondary sources, since governments classify their official intelligence records as secret and attempt to prevent any unauthorized disclosure of intelligence methods or sources. Unlike diplomatic archives and similar official papers, intelligence records are rarely made available to scholars; and intelligence aides leaving government service are sworn to secrecy for o period of several years. In one case a former intelligence aide, who had written a second novel based on his experiences inside the American intelligence community, was required by court order to submit that novel to the CIA for security clearance.

A growing body of literature produced by former intelligence aides who have become disillusioned with the profession, and especially with the way intelligence has been organized or has functioned. Books written by such authors tend to be highly critical and to reflect a negative bias, Even when the purpose of such criticism is to call attention to the need for organizational and functional reforms, the memoirs of former working-level aides are likely to be dismissed as inconsequential by reviews in the press. For example, Patrick McGarvey’s CIA: The Myth And The Madness[26] (1972) was tersely dismissed as “a useful book as for as it goes’l in an anonymous twenty-line review in the New York Times Book Review (23 March 1973).

Finally, on the other end of the spectrum from institutional advertising, there is a class of popular, journalistic literature which specializes in sensational revelations concerning covert operations such as the CIA-conducted Bay of Pigs episode. Clearly such works must be treated with caution in spite of their transient popularity. Wherever possible the annotations to the items listed in this bibliography attempt to indicate whatever bias or slanting is apparent.

Unfortunately, authorized disclosures by intelligence agencies themselves must also be used with caution since they are usually made for mixed security or political warfare purposes. Official revelations about the extent and menace of enemy espionage serve to heighten vigilance and bolster or tighten internal security. Such disclosures were extensively used by both sides during the cold war; they have continued during the detente which followed. For example, between 1964 and 1970 the USSR published roughly 190 articles extolling the exploits and virtues of Soviet intelligence, and some 490 articles warning against Western intelligence. In all fairness it should be noted that many of the publications by the U.S. Senate Judiciary Internal Security Subcommittee serve a similar warning function in the United States.

Since intelligence agencies try to improve their respective images and blacken those of their rivals, the reader would do well to treat all official and semi-official disclosures with caution and a large dose of skepticism. After all, one should always bear in mind that part of the mission of any intelligence agency is to confuse and mislead its rivals or opponents. This political warfare function has assumed such importance in the post-World War II period that some intelligence agencies have departments which specialize in the subtle spread of misinformation by spurious or forged documents, memoirs, and so forth. Some of the outstanding products of such disinformation departments are noted in the section of this bibliography which deals with covert operations.

But there are other factors which make for bias or slanting even in the serious literature of this obviously controversial field. Intelligence agencies are tightly closed societies which produce intense parochial institutional loyalties. Officials who retire or leave this field and later write about it naturally reflect a favorable bias toward their craft, and toward the particular agency in which they have served, especially if their careers have been highly rewarding both personally and professionally. In such cases their memoirs tend to read like institutional advertising. Allen Dulles’ The Craft of Intelligence[27] (1963), Lyman Kirkpatrick’s The Real CIA[28] (1968), and Roger Hilsman’s To Move A Nation[29] (1967), clearly manifest this tendency, On the other hand, there is a growing body of literature produced by former intelligence aides who have become disillusioned with the profession, and especially with the way intelligence has been organized or has functioned. Books written by such authors tend to be highly critical and to reflect a negative bias. Even when the purpose of such criticism is to call attention to the need for organizational and functional reforms, the memoirs of former working-level aides are likely to be dismissed as inconsequential by reviews in the press. For example, Patrick McGarvey’s CIA: The Myth and the Madness[30] (1972) was tersely dismissed as “a useful book as far as it goes” in an anonymous twenty-line review in the New York Times Book Review (23 March 19073).

Finally, on the other end of the spectrum from institutional advertising, there is a class of popular, journalistic literature which specializes in sensational revelations concerning covert operations such as the CIA-conducted Bay of Pigs episode. Clearly such works must be treated with caution in spite of their transient popularity. Wherever possible the annotations to the items listed in this bibliography attempt to indicate whatever bias or slanting is apparent.

SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION OF THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY

Two comprehensive bibliographies dealing with intelligence are discussed in the section on bibliography resources below. By contrast, this bibliography is highly selective. Since it is designed primarily for the general American public, it is limited mainly to books and articles in the English language. Only the most important foreign language titles are noted. Foreign language works of lesser significance are accessible through the comprehensive bibliographies listed. For each entry an attempt has been made to provide as much publication data as is available. Unfortunately, it is not possible to supply complete publication data for each work cited, since many publications appeared originally in classified form or have classified annexes to which public access is denied. The information given about the plethora of paperback editions, often in foreign languages, is also strictly limited. Most libraries do not acquire such editions, and information about them can be sought in either comprehensive bibliographies or in publishers’ guides. The primary emphasis here is on hardcover editions of important books. However, important journal or magazine articles as well as key articles from major newspapers such as the New York Times are also included.

The bibliography is intended as a guide for the layman but may also be found useful by political analysts and students of international relations and foreign affairs.

[1] Constantinides, George C. (1983). Intelligence and Espionage: An Analytical Bibliography. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 87-89

[2] Foot, M.R.D. (1966). SOE In France: An Account of The Work of British Special Operations Executive in France 1940-1944. London:H.M. Stationery Off

[3] Lasby, Clarence G. (1971). Project Paper Cup: German Scientists And The Cold War. New York: Atheneum

[4] McCoy ,Alfred W. (2003). The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia: CIA Complicity in The Global Drug Trade: Afghanistan, Southeast Asia, Central America, Colombia. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books

[5] McChristian, Joseph A. (1974). The Role of Military Intelligence, 1965-1967. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.

[6] Defense Intelligence School (1981). Bibliography of Intelligence Literature: A Critical And Annotated Bibliography of Open-Source Literature (7th ed, rev.). Washington, D.C. : Defense Intelligence School

[7] Cookridge, E. H. (1970). The Many Sides of George Blake, Esq: The Complete Dossier. Princeton, NJ: Vertex

[8] Cave Brown, Anthony (1976). Bodyguard of Lies. London: W. H. Allen

[9] Young, Desmond (1963). Rutland of Jutland. London, Cassell

[10] Stevenson, William (1976, 2000). A Man Called Intrepid. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich

[11] Deacon, Richard (1970). A History of The British Secret Service. New York: Taplinger

[12] Scotland, A. P. (1959). The London Cage. London: Landsborough Publications

[13] Schwarzwalder, John (1946). We Caught Spies. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce

[14] Wighton, Charles (1959). Pin-Stripe Saboteur: The Story of “Robin”, British Agent and French. London: Odhams Press

[15] loc cit.

[16] Winterbotham, Frederick William (1974, 1977). The Ultra Secret. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson

[17] Copeland, Miles (1974). Without Cloak or Dagger: The Truth About The New Espionage. New York: Simon and Schuster

[18] Kim, Young Hum (1968), compiler. The Central Intelligence Agency: Problems of Secrecy in a Democracy. Lexington, MA: Heath

[19] Farago, Ladislas (1971). The Game of the Foxes: The Untold Story of German Espionage in the U.S. & Great Britain During World War II. New York: David McKay Co.

[20] Farago, Ladislas (1969). The Broken Seal: the Story of Operation Magic and the Secret Road to Pearl Harbor. London: Mayflower

[21] Seth, Ronald (1972). Encyclopedia of Espionage. London, New English Library

[22] Pinto, Oreste (1952). Spy-Catcher. London: W. Laurie

[23] Rowan, Richard Wilmer (1937). The Story of Secret Service. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran

[24] Defense Intelligence School (1981). Bibliography of Intelligence Literature (7th ed Rev.). Washington, DD: Defense Intelligence School, p. 8

[25] Blackstock, Paul W. (1978) and Frank L. Schaf, Jr. Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage, And Covert Operations: A Guide to Information Sources. Detroit: Gale Research Co., p.

[26] McGarvey, Patrick J. (1972). CIA: The Myth and the Madness. New York: Saturday Review Press

[27] Dulles, Allen W. (2006). The Craft of Intelligence: America’s Legendary Spy Master on the Fundamentals of Intelligence Gathering for a Free World. Guilford, CT: The Lyons Press

[28] Kirkpatrick, Lyman B. (1968). The Real CIA. New York, Macmillan

[29] Hilsman, Roger (1967). To Move A Nation: The Politics of Foreign Policy in The Administration of John F. Kennedy. Garden City, NY: Doubleday

[30] McGarvey, Patrick J. (1972). CIA: The Myth and the Madness. New York: Saturday Review Press

Date Updated:  March 9, 2017

Reviewed by George C. Constantinides[1]

When it appeared, this work was the most comprehensive annotated bibliography of its type yet published. The authors had excellent professional and academic credentials for the task: both had served in U.S. military intelligence, and the late Blackstock had specialized in various aspects of intelligence, especially in Soviet activities and covert action. The authors regarded this as a highly selective bibliography designed “primarily for the general American public,” and it is restricted mainly to books and articles in English. However, they also saw it as possibly of use to political analysts and students of international and foreign affairs. The book is divided into a number of intelligence and geographic categories and contains a selected bibliography of fifty titles, a general critique of the literature, and a chapter on general bibliographic resources.

This very useful breakdown results in an individual work’s sometimes being listed under different categories-for example, two of Deacon’s books are listed in a total of five categories. Introductory essays are helpful to the lay reader. However, readers may not find acceptable the failure to differentiate adequately between authorized disclosures of a country such as the USSR and those of a U.S. Senate committee in the section titled “General Critique,” and they will spot a questionable item about George Blake’s having been ordered by British intelligence to work for the Soviets.

Despite its many praiseworthy qualities, among which must be mentioned some good judgmental annotations of certain books, this work contains a number of errors on particular books. It refers to Foot’s SOE in France[2] as a definitive work, ignoring Foot’s own catalog of the limitation to his research; Krivitsky’s spurious rank is repeated and his memoirs only called fairly reliable; the designation “definitive” is used more than it should be, as in the case of Lasby’s Project Paperclip[3]; McCoy’s The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia[4] is called carefully documented, which is not the case; McChristian’s The Role of Military Intelligence 1965-1967[5] is described as comprehensive, which, since it is unclassified, it obviously is not, as DIS’s Bibliography of Intelligence Literature[6] pointed out. Cookridge’s The Many Sides of George Blake[7] certainly is not “the full story.” To call Cave Brown’s Bodyguard of Lies[8] “the single best source of information on intelligence and deception operations in World War II” misses the many serious and basic faults of the book; Young’s Rutland of Jutland[9] is not “excellent” because the author missed material of critical importance; Stevenson’s A Man Called Intrepid[10] does not receive the sharp criticism it deserves. The same is true of Deacon’s A History of the British Secret Service[11], which is only called “an important work.” The annotation for Scotland’s The London Cage[12] is incorrect, and John Schwarzwalder, the author of We Caught Spies[13], is called Schwarzelder. Blackstock and Schaf are not aware of the errors in Wighton’s Pin-Stripe Saboteur[14] cited in Foot’s SOE in France[15]. The major shortcomings of Winterbotham’s The Ultra Secret[16] are not mentioned, and neither are those of Copeland’s Without Cloak or Dagger[17]. Kim’s The Central Intelligence Agency[18] is described as a collection of essays on secrecy when it actually ranges beyond that. Farago’s The Game of the Foxes[19] and The Broken Seal[20] also escape any of the adverse comments that have been leveled against them by others. The verdict on Seth’s Encyclopedia of Espionage[21] is incomplete; it is called “a remarkable compilation” despite Blackstock and Schaf’s awareness of its gaps. The shortcomings of Pinto’s Spy Catcher[22] are not indicated, and Rowan’s work[23], though prodigious, is hardly “exhaustive,” as it is described.

This is a review by the Defense Intelligence School.[24]

At one time, this was the only currently published bibliography of its kind available. It is of some limited use to the professional intelligence officer, and of utility to lay libraries and readers. Some of its annotations should be used circumspectly. A helpful feature is the inclusion of titles of selected periodical articles.

Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage, and Covert Operations

This book by Paul W. Blackstock and Frank L. Schaf[25] is a now dated but still valuable guide to information sources on the topics of the title. Below is an outline of the contents. The non-book entries in the work are listed herein along with the divisions listed in the Contents. References to larger works are indicated by hyperlinks to those works in the main Spyinggame blog.

Contents

Acknowledgments

Introduction: A General Critique of the Literature

Part I. General Bibliographic Resources

Chapter 1. Comprehensive Bibliographies

Chapter 2. Selective Bibliographies

Chapter 3. Encyclopedia Articles

Part II. Strategic Intelligence

Chapter 4. Theory, Doctrine, and Organization

  1. United States (General Works and Surveys)
  2. The Soviet Union
  3. The Special Bibliography of Soviet Sources
  4. Books and Articles (Western Sources)
  5. Great Britain
  6. Germany
  7. France .and Other Countries (Canada, Israel, Switzerland, Chlna, and Japan)

Chapter 5. Utilization of Intelligence

  1. Bocks, Monographs, Dissertations
  2. Articles, Pamphlets, Chapters from Books
  3. Government Documents
  4. The Pentagon Papers

Chapter 6. Military Intelligence

  1. Books, Training Manuals, Texts, Memoirs
  2. Articles

Chapter 7, Counterintelligence and Security: United States

  1. Books and Monographs
  2. Articles and Reports

Chapter 8. Secrecy and Security versus Freedom of Information and the Right to Privacy

  1. Books and Monographs
  2. Articles and Reports

Chapter 9. Counterintelligence and Security, The USSR

  1. Books
  2. Articles and Reports

Chapter 10. Scientific and Technical Intelligence

  1. Books
  2. Articles and Reports

Chapter 11. Communications and Electronic Intelligence

  1. Books
  2. Articles and Reports

Chapter 12. Escape and Evasion

Chapter 13. Industrial Espionage

Part llI. Espionage and Counterespionage

Chapter 14. Espionage

  1. General Surveys
  2. Anthologies of Spy Stories
  3. General Anthologies
  4. Women in Espionage
  5. The United States
  6. The Soviet Union
  7. General Surveys
  8. Survey Articles
  9. Memoirs and Biographies
  10. Great Britain
  11. General Surveys
  12. Memoirs and Biographies
  13. Germany
  14. The History of Espionage
  15. Before 1914
  16. The American Revolution, 1775-83
  17. The French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars, 1789-1815
  18. The American Civil War, 1861-65
  19. World War I and the lnterwar Period
  20. Espionage in World War II
  21. General Works and Memoirs
  22. Soviet-Controlled Networks (Rado-Rossler and the Red Orchestra)
  23. Selected Espionage Fiction

Chapter 15. Counterespionage

  1. General Books
  2. General Articles
  3. Memoirs
  4. Counterespionage Networks or Operations
  5. The Double-Cross System
  6. Operation Nordpol (North Pole)

Part IV. Covert Operations

Chapter 16. General Works and Surveys

Chapter 17. SOE—The British Special Operations Executive

  1. General Works
  2. Memoirs and Biographies

Chapter 18. OSS—The U.S. Office of Strategic Services

  1. General Works
  2. Memoirs and Biographies
  3. Networks and Operations
  4. OSS in the Far East and Southeast Asia

Chapter 19. CIA: Covert Operations

Chapter 20. The Soviet Union: Partisan Warfare and Political Warfare

Chapter 21. Disinformation, Deception, Frauds, and Forgeries

  1. Disinformation
  2. Deception in World War II
  3. Gleiwitz and Related Border Provocations
  4. Barbarossa: German Deception and the Invasion of the USSR
  5. Operation “North Pole”: Radio (Funkspiel) Deception in Holland
  6. Operation “Mincemeat”: Deception before the Allied Invasion of Sicily
  7. The “Double-Cross System”: Deception prior to the Normandy Invasion
  8. Frauds and Forgeries

Selected Bibliography of Fifty Titles


 

Introduction

A GENERAL CRITIQUE OF THE LITERATURE

The importance of intelligence, espionage, and covert political operations can hardly be overemphasized in a world which lives under the shadow of thermonuclear holocaust. Each of the nuclear powers regards intelligence as essential to its security, makes use of espionage to collect information, and employs covert operations as a substitute for the open use of military force. All states make use of counterespionage agencies or techniques to thwart the positive intelligence efforts directed at themselves by their neighbors and, if possible, to abort any covert operations of which they may be the targets. Given the importance of intelligence, the lack of a selected, annotated bibliography on the subject is surprising, and it is hoped that this reference guide will help meet the need. However, there are reasons for the gap. Nat only does the subject have many politically sensitive ramifications, but even the terms used are confused and confusing. Expressions such as “Soviet (or U.S.) intelligence” are used as a kind of shorthand for all the intelligence and security agencies of the state concerned. The primary function of such agencies is the collection, evaluation, and dissemination of information for decision-making purposes. Only a fraction of such information is collected by espionage agents using clandestine techniques and methods. Nevertheless, popular usage confuses espionage, which is only one means of collecting information, with the entire intelligence function. Melodramatic spy novels and motion pictures reinforce this mistaken notion.

Because there is so much confusion in terminology, the student or businessman seeking a comprehensive view of the subject must look through the card index files of whatever library he uses under a variety of headings such as “Intelligence,” “Espionage and Counterespionage,” and “Secret Service.”

Roughly nine tenths of the serious literature on intelligence has been written in English or German, But the scholar using German libraries and sources will find a similar confusion of terms such as Nachrichtendienst (“Intelligence Service”), Geheimdienst (“Secret Service”), and Spionage (“espionage”).

General Critique

Whatever library he uses, the inquirer will find its holdings heavily weighted in favor of espionage and espionage fiction in the “great, true spy stories” tradition. The serious literature dealing with intelligence, its production and use, as a basis for foreign policy decision making tends to be lost in the flood of glamorized memoirs or historical accounts of the “now it can be told” variety. The serious student will quickly discover that the relevant literature is based almost entirely on secondary sources, since governments classify their official intelligence records as secret and attempt to prevent any unauthorized disclosure of intelligence methods or sources. Unlike diplomatic archives and similar official papers, intelligence records are rarely made available to scholars; and intelligence aides leaving government service are sworn to secrecy for o period of several years. In one case a former intelligence aide, who had written a second novel based on his experiences inside the American intelligence community, was required by court order to submit that novel to the CIA for security clearance.

A growing body of literature produced by former intelligence aides who have become disillusioned with the profession, and especially with the way intelligence has been organized or has functioned. Books written by such authors tend to be highly critical and to reflect a negative bias, Even when the purpose of such criticism is to call attention to the need for organizational and functional reforms, the memoirs of former working-level aides are likely to be dismissed as inconsequential by reviews in the press. For example, Patrick McGarvey’s CIA: The Myth And The Madness[26] (1972) was tersely dismissed as “a useful book as for as it goes’l in an anonymous twenty-line review in the New York Times Book Review (23 March 1973).

Finally, on the other end of the spectrum from institutional advertising, there is a class of popular, journalistic literature which specializes in sensational revelations concerning covert operations such as the CIA-conducted Bay of Pigs episode. Clearly such works must be treated with caution in spite of their transient popularity. Wherever possible the annotations to the items listed in this bibliography attempt to indicate whatever bias or slanting is apparent.

Unfortunately, authorized disclosures by intelligence agencies themselves must also be used with caution since they are usually made for mixed security or political warfare purposes. Official revelations about the extent and menace of enemy espionage serve to heighten vigilance and bolster or tighten internal security. Such disclosures were extensively used by both sides during the cold war; they have continued during the detente which followed. For example, between 1964 and 1970 the USSR published roughly 190 articles extolling the exploits and virtues of Soviet intelligence, and some 490 articles warning against Western intelligence. In all fairness it should be noted that many of the publications by the U.S. Senate Judiciary Internal Security Subcommittee serve a similar warning function in the United States.

Since intelligence agencies try to improve their respective images and blacken those of their rivals, the reader would do well to treat all official and semi-official disclosures with caution and a large dose of skepticism. After all, one should always bear in mind that part of the mission of any intelligence agency is to confuse and mislead its rivals or opponents. This political warfare function has assumed such importance in the post-World War II period that some intelligence agencies have departments which specialize in the subtle spread of misinformation by spurious or forged documents, memoirs, and so forth. Some of the outstanding products of such disinformation departments are noted in the section of this bibliography which deals with covert operations.

But there are other factors which make for bias or slanting even in the serious literature of this obviously controversial field. Intelligence agencies are tightly closed societies which produce intense parochial institutional loyalties. Officials who retire or leave this field and later write about it naturally reflect a favorable bias toward their craft, and toward the particular agency in which they have served, especially if their careers have been highly rewarding both personally and professionally. In such cases their memoirs tend to read like institutional advertising. Allen Dulles’ The Craft of Intelligence[27] (1963), Lyman Kirkpatrick’s The Real CIA[28] (1968), and Roger Hilsman’s To Move A Nation[29] (1967), clearly manifest this tendency, On the other hand, there is a growing body of literature produced by former intelligence aides who have become disillusioned with the profession, and especially with the way intelligence has been organized or has functioned. Books written by such authors tend to be highly critical and to reflect a negative bias. Even when the purpose of such criticism is to call attention to the need for organizational and functional reforms, the memoirs of former working-level aides are likely to be dismissed as inconsequential by reviews in the press. For example, Patrick McGarvey’s CIA: The Myth and the Madness[30] (1972) was tersely dismissed as “a useful book as far as it goes” in an anonymous twenty-line review in the New York Times Book Review (23 March 19073).

Finally, on the other end of the spectrum from institutional advertising, there is a class of popular, journalistic literature which specializes in sensational revelations concerning covert operations such as the CIA-conducted Bay of Pigs episode. Clearly such works must be treated with caution in spite of their transient popularity. Wherever possible the annotations to the items listed in this bibliography attempt to indicate whatever bias or slanting is apparent.

SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION OF THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY

Two comprehensive bibliographies dealing with intelligence are discussed in the section on bibliography resources below. By contrast, this bibliography is highly selective. Since it is designed primarily for the general American public, it is limited mainly to books and articles in the English language. Only the most important foreign language titles are noted. Foreign language works of lesser significance are accessible through the comprehensive bibliographies listed. For each entry an attempt has been made to provide as much publication data as is available. Unfortunately, it is not possible to supply complete publication data for each work cited, since many publications appeared originally in classified form or have classified annexes to which public access is denied. The information given about the plethora of paperback editions, often in foreign languages, is also strictly limited. Most libraries do not acquire such editions, and information about them can be sought in either comprehensive bibliographies or in publishers’ guides. The primary emphasis here is on hardcover editions of important books. However, important journal or magazine articles as well as key articles from major newspapers such as the New York Times are also included.

The bibliography is intended as a guide for the layman but may also be found useful by political analysts and students of international relations and foreign affairs.

Blackstock and Schaf include a (now very dated) Selected Bibliography of Fifty Titles.

Selected Bibliography of Fifty Titles

The following titles are suggested for personal collections of essential books in the field and for small libraries which must limit their selections to representative works. [These books are of historical interest, but quite out of date by 2017.] As always, any author’s list is subjective. Caveat. Perpendat itaque lector cavendum (civilis).[31]

Agee, Phillip (1975). Inside the Company: A CIA Diary. New York: Stonehill

Bakeless, John (1959, 1998). Turncoats, Traitors, And Heroes. New York, NY: Da Capo Press

Barron, John (1974). KGB: The Secret Work of Soviet Secret Agents. New York: Reader’s Digest Press; distributed by E. P. Dutton

Blackstock, Paul W. (1969). The Secret Road to World War II: Soviet Versus Western Intelligence 1921-1939. Chicago: Quadrangle Books

Blackstock, Paul W. (1964). The Strategy of Subversion: Manipulating The Politics of Other Nations. Chicago: Quadrangle Books

Brissaud, André (1974). The Nazi Secret Service. New York: W. W. Norton

Cave Brown, Anthony (1976). Bodyguard of Lies. London: W. H. Allen

Cline, Ray S. (1976, 1982). The CIA: Reality vs. Myth. Originally published as Secrets, Spies, And Scholars: Blueprint of The Essential CIA. Washington DC: Acropolis Books

Collier, Richard (1958, 2001). Ten Thousand Eyes. New York: Lyons Press [New York: E. P. Dutton, 1958]

Cookridge E. H. (1971). Gehlen: Spy of The Century. London: Hodder and Stoughton

Copeland, Miles (1974). Without Cloak or Dagger: The Truth About The New Espionage. New York: Simon and Schuster

Dallin, David J. (1955). Soviet Espionage. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press

Deacon, Richard (1972) [pseud .]. A History of The Russian Secret Service. London: Muller

Donovan, James B. (1964). Strangers on a Bridge: The Case of Colonel Abel. New York: Atheneum

Dulles, Allen W. (2006). The Craft of Intelligence: America’s Legendary Spy Master on the Fundamentals of Intelligence Gathering for a Free World. Guilford, CT: The Lyons Press

Farago, Ladislas (1969). The Broken Seal: the Story of Operation Magic and the Secret Road to Pearl Harbor. London: Mayflower

Felix, Christopher (1992). A Short Course in The Secret War, 3rd ed. Lanham, MD: Madison Books

Foot, M.R.D. (1966). SOE In France: An Account of The Work of British Special Operations Executive in France 1940-1944. London: H.M. Stationery Off

Giskes, H. J.(1953). London Calling North Pole. London: William Kimber

Gravel, Mike (1971-2), Noam Chomsky, and Howard Zinn. The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of United States Decisionmaking on Vietnam (The Senator Gravel edition – 5 vols.). Boston, Beacon Press

Hagen, Louis (1968). The Secret War For Europe: A Dossier Of Espionage. London: Macdonald

Hilsman, Roger (1956, 1981). Strategic Intelligence And National Decisions. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press

Hingley, Ronald (1970, 1971). The Russian Secret Police: Muscovite, Imperial Russian, and Soviet Political Security Operations. New York: Simon & Schuster

Irving, David John Cawdell (1965). The Mare’s Nest. Boston, Little, Brown

Kahn, David (1967). The Codebreakers: The Story of Secret Writing. New York: Macmillan

Kent, Sherman (1966). Strategic Intelligence for American World Policy. Hamden, CT: Archon Books

Kirkpatrick, Lyman B. (1973). The U.S. Intelligence Community: Foreign Policy And Domestic Activities. New York, Hill and Wang

Klass, Philip J. (1971). Secret Sentries in Space. New York, Random House

McLachlan, Donald (1968). Room 39: A Study in Naval Intelligence. New York: Atheneum

Marchetti, Victor (1990) and John D. Marks. The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence. New York: Knopf

Masterson, J. C. (2012). The Double-Cross System: The Incredible True Story of How Nazi Spies Were Turned into Double Agents. Guilford, DE: The Lyons Press

Orlov, Alexander (1963). Handbook of Intelligence And Guerrilla Warfare. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press

Page, Bruce (1968), David Leitch, and Phillip Knightley. The Philby Conspiracy. Garden City, NY: Doubleday

Perrault, Gilles (1967, 1989). The Red Orchestra: The Anatomy of the Most Successful Spy Ring of World War II (translated by Peter Wiles). New York: Schocken Books

Pinto, Oreste (1952). Spy-Catcher. London: W. Laurie

Ransom, Harry Howe (1970). The Intelligence Establishment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press

Rositzke, Harry August (1988). CIA’s Secret Operations: Espionage, Counterespionage, and Covert Action. Boulder, CO: Westview Press

Rowan, Richard Wilmer (1967) with Robert G. Deindorfer. Secret Service: Thirty-Three Centuries of Espionage. New York, Hawthorn Books

Smith, R. Harris (2005). OSS: The Secret History of America’s First Central Intelligence Agency. Guilford, CT: Lyons Press

Stevenson, William (1976). A Man Called Intrepid: The Secret War. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich

Strong, Kenneth (1972). Men of Intelligence: A Study of The Roles And Decisions of Chiefs of Intelligence From World War I to The Present Day. New York: St. Martin’s Press

Tuchman, Barbara W. (1966). The Zimmermann Telegram. New York, Macmillan

Ungar, Sanford J. (1975). FBI: An Uncensored Look Behind the Walls. Little, Brown & Company

Whaley, Barton (1973). Codeword BARBAROSSA. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Whitehead, Don (1956). The FBI Story: A Report to the People. New York: Random House

Wilensky, Harold L. (1967). Organizational Intelligence: Knowledge and Policy in Government and Industry. New York: Basic Books

Winterbotham, Frederick William(1974). The Ultra Secret. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson

Wise, David (1976). The American Police State: The Government Against the People. New York: Random House

Wohlstetter, Roberta (1962). Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press

Wynne, Greville (1968). Contact on Gorky Street: A British Agent’s Own First-Hand Account of His Mission to Moscow. New York: Atheneum

[1] Constantinides, George C. (1983). Intelligence and Espionage: An Analytical Bibliography. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 87-89

[2] Foot, M.R.D. (1966). SOE In France: An Account of The Work of British Special Operations Executive in France 1940-1944. London:H.M. Stationery Off

[3] Lasby, Clarence G. (1971). Project Paper Cup: German Scientists And The Cold War. New York: Atheneum

[4] McCoy ,Alfred W. (2003). The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia: CIA Complicity in The Global Drug Trade: Afghanistan, Southeast Asia, Central America, Colombia. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books

[5] McChristian, Joseph A. (1974). The Role of Military Intelligence, 1965-1967. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.

[6] Defense Intelligence School (1981). Bibliography of Intelligence Literature: A Critical And Annotated Bibliography of Open-Source Literature (7th ed, rev.). Washington, D.C. : Defense Intelligence School

[7] Cookridge, E. H. (1970). The Many Sides of George Blake, Esq: The Complete Dossier. Princeton, NJ: Vertex

[8] Cave Brown, Anthony (1976). Bodyguard of Lies. London: W. H. Allen

[9] Young, Desmond (1963). Rutland of Jutland. London, Cassell

[10] Stevenson, William (1976, 2000). A Man Called Intrepid. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich

[11] Deacon, Richard (1970). A History of The British Secret Service. New York: Taplinger

[12] Scotland, A. P. (1959). The London Cage. London: Landsborough Publications

[13] Schwarzwalder, John (1946). We Caught Spies. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce

[14] Wighton, Charles (1959). Pin-Stripe Saboteur: The Story of “Robin”, British Agent and French. London: Odhams Press

[15] loc cit.

[16] Winterbotham, Frederick William (1974, 1977). The Ultra Secret. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson

[17] Copeland, Miles (1974). Without Cloak or Dagger: The Truth About The New Espionage. New York: Simon and Schuster

[18] Kim, Young Hum (1968), compiler. The Central Intelligence Agency: Problems of Secrecy in a Democracy. Lexington, MA: Heath

[19] Farago, Ladislas (1971). The Game of the Foxes: The Untold Story of German Espionage in the U.S. & Great Britain During World War II. New York: David McKay Co.

[20] Farago, Ladislas (1969). The Broken Seal: the Story of Operation Magic and the Secret Road to Pearl Harbor. London: Mayflower

[21] Seth, Ronald (1972). Encyclopedia of Espionage. London, New English Library

[22] Pinto, Oreste (1952). Spy-Catcher. London: W. Laurie

[23] Rowan, Richard Wilmer (1937). The Story of Secret Service. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran

[24] Defense Intelligence School (1981). Bibliography of Intelligence Literature (7th ed Rev.). Washington, DD: Defense Intelligence School, p. 8

[25] Blackstock, Paul W. (1978) and Frank L. Schaf, Jr. Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage, And Covert Operations: A Guide to Information Sources. Detroit: Gale Research Co., p.

[26] McGarvey, Patrick J. (1972). CIA: The Myth and the Madness. New York: Saturday Review Press

[27] Dulles, Allen W. (2006). The Craft of Intelligence: America’s Legendary Spy Master on the Fundamentals of Intelligence Gathering for a Free World. Guilford, CT: The Lyons Press

[28] Kirkpatrick, Lyman B. (1968). The Real CIA. New York, Macmillan

[29] Hilsman, Roger (1967). To Move A Nation: The Politics of Foreign Policy in The Administration of John F. Kennedy. Garden City, NY: Doubleday

[30] McGarvey, Patrick J. (1972). CIA: The Myth and the Madness. New York: Saturday Review Press

[31] On occasion, personal loyalties and opinions can be carved in stone and defended with a vengeance — at times with some venom thrown in. In these situations, the actual importance of the subject matter is dwarfed by the amount of aggression expressed. Retain a sense of proportion in all online and in-person discussions. [From The Intelligencer: Journal of U. S. Intelligence Studies.]

 

 

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