Title: Confirm Or Deny
Author: Phil G. Goulding
Goulding, Phil G. (1970). Confirm Or Deny; Informing The People On National Security. New York, Harper & Row
- First edition 1970; second edition 1989. First published in Great Britain by Macmillan London Limited”–T.p. verso.
Date Posted: March 23, 2016
Reviewed by Paul W. Blackstock and Frank L. Schaf
An ex-assistant secretary of defense for public affairs under Robert McNamara and Clark Clifford describes the conflicts that arose between the demands of the press and the requirements of national security, while trying to inform the public regarding crises and explaining major defense issues in a nuclear world. The author has selected misadventures occurring between mid-1965 and early 1969 in order to provide an insight into the pressures affecting decisions to provide or withhold information. Four of the episodes chosen are intelligence-related: the interception of an American photo-reconnaissance plane by a French jet aircraft in a prohibited area above an atomic plant in 1965; the attack on the intelligence ship U.S.S. Liberty in the Middle East in 1967; the antiballistic missile (ABM) controversies of 1967; and the capture of the intelligence ship U.S.S. Pueblo in 1968.
 Blackstock, Paul W. (1978) and Frank L. Schaf, Jr. Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage, And Covert Operations: A Guide to Information Sources. Detroit: Gale Research Co., p. 76