Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage, And Covert Operations, chapter 4

Title:                     Theory, Doctrine, and Organization

Author:                 Paul W. Blackstock

Blackstock, Paul W. (1978) and Frank L. Schaf, Jr.”Chapter 4: Theory, Doctrine, and Organization,” Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage, And Covert Operations: A Guide to Information Sources. Detroit: Gale Research Co.

LCCN:    74011567

Z6724.I7 B55


Date Updated:  April 15, 2016


Alsop, Stewart (1968). The Center: People And Power in Political Washington. New York: Harper & Row

Blackstock, Paul W. “Intelligence and Covert Operations: Changing Doctrine and Practice.” Columbia: University of South Carolina, Department of Government and International Studies, December 1973. 125 p. Mimeographed.

“Another example of imaginative and rewarding work on the research frontier is the project undertaken by Paul W. Blackstock of the Institute of International Studies, University of South Carolina. Professor Blackstock circulated a ‘Confidential Intelligence Questionnaire’ among a group of intelligence aides experienced in key posts ‘at the working level’ within the intelligence system. ln his questionnaire, Blackstock set forth a number of published observations by scholars relating to a ‘broad range of topics related to the intelligence system, requesting detailed comments on such observations from his respondents.’” Comments by Harry Howe Ransom[1].

A second such questionnaire was sent out following President Richard M. Nixon’s reorganization of U.S. intelligence in the fall of 1971, Questionnaires were also sent to Maior General Sir Kenneth Strong, former head of the British joint intelligence bureau and author of Men Of Intelligence[2]. With his permission, perceptive judgments from this work were added where pertinent.

Although the sample was limited, this is the first survey research of its kind outside the restricted studies made with in the intelligence community itself. Part 1 deals with major continuing problems of intelligence doctrine and practice, part 2 with covert political operations, and part 3 with intelligence estimates and decision making. The appendix is a case study of intelligence and decision making in the Gulf of Tonkin incident.

Cline, Ray S. (1976, 1982). The CIA: Reality vs. Myth. Originally published as Secrets, Spies, And Scholars: Blueprint of The Essential CIA. Washington DC: Acropolis Books

Dulles, Allen W. (2006). The Craft of Intelligence: America’s Legendary Spy Master on the Fundamentals of Intelligence Gathering for a Free World. Guilford, CT: The Lyons Press

Farago, Ladislas (1954, 1976). War of Wits: The Anatomy of Espionage And Intelligence. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press

Kellis, James G. “The Development of U.S. National Intelligence, 1941-1961.” Doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University, 1963. 352 p. Appendix, bibliography, organization charts, no index.

The preface states that the author “has limited his effort to the history of the U. S. Intelligence for the past twenty years. He has emphasized the causes which led to the acceleration of our effort in intelligence, traced the history of the various organizations which constitute the U.S. intelligence community, reviewed some of their accomplishments and failures, and discussed their organization. . . . The establishment, development, organization, and accomplishments of the OSS are discussed at considerable length. This is p due to the fact that . . . a substantial source of original material on the OSS was made available to the author by the late Major General William J. Donovan, the Director of OSS from 1941 to 1945.”

The author served in the OSS, and in the Far East with the CIA until 1954. In addition to certain of the Donovan papers, the bibliography lists a number of State and Defense Department mimeographed papers on various aspects of intelligence.

Kent, Sherman (1966). Strategic Intelligence for American World Policy. Hamden, CT: Archon Books

Knorr, Klaus (1964). Foreign Intelligence and the Social Sciences. Princeton, NJ: Center of International Studies, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University

Pettee, George Sawyer (1946). The Future of American Secret Intelligence. Washington, DC: Infantry Journal Press

Platt, Washington (1957). Strategic Intelligence Production: Basic Principles. New York, F. A. Praeger

Ransom, Harry Howe (1963). Can American Democracy Survive Cold War? Garden City, NY: Doubleday

Ransom, Harry Howe (1958). Central Intelligence And National Security. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press

Ransom, Harry Howe (1970). The Intelligence Establishment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press

Ransom, Harry Howe (1973). Strategic Intelligence. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press

Roberts, John W., Jr. “Toward a Theory of Intelligence: Testing for CorreIates of Forecasting.” Master’s thesis, University of Georgia, 1973. 228 p. Mimeographed.

Roberts applies a nomothetic or “behavioral” approach to intelligence estimates. He states, “In the light of the important contribution intelligence carries into the policy-making process, and the problems associated with forecasting, this paper proposes to investigate the process and limitations of intelligence forecasting and the role it plays in policy decision-making.” Under “Findings and Implications” he summarizes the work as follows: “This study has attempted to contribute to the development of a theory of intelligence by: (1) exploring the present state of intelligence theory; (2) discussing basic concepts and assumptions of the intelligence function; and (3) testing the relationships between analytically operationalized concepts believed to be operating in the intelligence forecasting process. Based upon the test applied to these correlates of forecasting, this final section will include a discussion of the results of the test; the validity of the data; the theoretical implications of the results; and the limitations of the investigation.” The first section, “A Perspective on Intelligence Theory,” is an excellent summary of general intelligence doctrine.

Schaf, Frank L., Jr. “The Evolution of Modern Strategic Intelligence.” Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1965. 698 p. Mimeographed. Bibliography, organization charts.

The author, an army officer (now retired) with extensive experience in strategic intelligence, examines the intelligence organizations of England, France, Germany, USSR, and the United States that evolved during World War II, and points up the differences and similarities. He provides comparative analysis of the organizational and doctrinal responses in each country as warfare changed and as requirements for intelligence changed. Emphasis is placed on analysis of the advent of long-range missiles, radar, atomic weapons, and other technological innovations into strategic warfare, and the effects these innovations had on intelligence. The effects of the World War II experience on U.S. strategic intelligence are analyzed for the period 1945 through 1964.

Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities (1976). Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations With Respect to the Intelligence Activities United States Senate, Hearings Before the Select Committee To Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities of U.S. Senate. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Mader, Julius (1968). Who’s Who In CIA; A Biographical Reference Work On 3,000 Officers of The Civil And Military Branches of Secret Services of The USA In 120 Countries. Berlin: Julius Mader

Wilensky, Harold L. (1967). Organizational Intelligence: Knowledge and Policy in Government and Industry. New York: Basic Books

Zlotnick, Jack (1964). National Intelligence. Washington, DC: U.S. Industrial College of the Armed Forces


Although the comprehensive Gunzenhauser bibliography (cited in chapter 1) lists some 200 titles dealing with the subject, there is no single work on Soviet intelligence comparable to Harry Howe Ransom’s The Intelligence Establishment[3], which deals with the U.S. intelligence community. Soviet intelligence agencies, both civilian and military, are closely integrated and it is difficult to draw a fixed line between internal security police functions (such as those performed by the FBI in the United States) and foreign or strategic intelligence proper. Moreover, most works on the subject are slanted, pro or con, for political warfare purposes, and are heavily laden with cold war propaganda. This observation applies equally to Soviet works praising the exploits of the Soviet security organs and to Western works warning of the dangers of Soviet espionage. Most of the literature thus falls into the espionage/counterespionage category, or the covert operations category, and is so listed in this bibliography. Books dealing specifically with counterintelligence and internal security are listed in chapter 7 for the United States and in chapter 9 for the Soviet Union. A separate subsection dealing with a special comprehensive bibliography of Soviet publications on intelligence and related topics precedes the listing of general works below.

  1. Special Bibliography of Soviet Sources

Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service (1972-75). Soviet Intelligence And Security Services; A Selected Bibliography of Soviet Publications, With Some Additional Titles From Other Sources. Washington, DC: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.

  1. Books and Articles (Western Sources)

Deacon, Richard (1972) [pseud .]. A History of The Russian Secret Service. London, Muller

Garthoff, Raymond L. “Prediction, Intelligence, and Reconnaissance,” in Soviet Military Doctrine[4].

An authoritative review of the place of intelligence in Soviet doctrine by the author of the definitive work on the subject (see below). Garthoff was a member of the RAND Corporation when he wrote this work.

Garthoff, Raymond L. (1956). “The Soviet lntelligence Services,” pp. 265-75 in, Hart, B. H. Liddell (1956). The Soviet Army, New York: Harcourt, Brace [LCCN: 57000188]

An expansion of material in the author’s Soviet Military Doctrine (see above). Although somewhat dated it remains one of the most authoritative brief reviews of the complex of Soviet intelligence services.

Hingley, Ronald (1970, 1971). The Russian Secret Police: Muscovite, Imperial Russian, and Soviet Political Security Operations. New York: Simon & Schuster

Orlov, Alexander (1963). Handbook of Intelligence And Guerrilla Warfare. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press


There is no work on British intelligence comparable to Horry Howe Ransom’s work on American intelligence, The Intelligence Establishment[5], which includes a chapter on “The British Intelligence System”. However, information on the working of various agencies within the British intelligence community is scattered throughout books dealing with espionage, counterespionage, the operations of the wartime Special Operations Executive (see chapter 17), and so on. For an extensive listing of both English and foreign language titles the comprehensive Gunzenhauser bibliography should be consulted (see chapter 1).

Bulloch, John (1963). M.I.5: The Origin And History of The British Counter-Espionage Service. London: Arthur Barker

Deacon, Richard (1970). A History of The British Secret Service. New York: Taplinger

Ransom, Harry Howe. “The British Intelligence System.” In his The Intelligence Establishment[6], pp. 180-207.

Ransom, Harry Howe. “Great Britain’s Secret, Secret Service.” Midway (8, June 1967, pp. 19-35)

A general survey of the British system and a look at how secrecy is maintained in England.

Strong, Kenneth (1969). Intelligence At The Top: The Recollections of An Intelligence Officer. Garden City, NY: Doubleday

Wise, David (1968) and Thomas B. Ross. “Great Britain.” In Wise, David (1968) and T. B. Ross. The Espionage Establishment. London: Cape


The comprehensive Gunzenhauser bibliography (see chapter 1) Iists more than 250 titles dealing with German intelligence, espionage, and counterespionage activities. Most of these works ore concerned with intelligence in World Wars I and II. In this section are listed the few works dealing with the German intelligence services.

Bartz, Karl (1955). Die Tragödie der deutschen Abwehr. Salzburg, Austria: Pilgram Verlag

Brissaud, André (1974). The Nazi Secret Service. New York: W. W. Norton

Hoettl, Wilhelm (1954). The Secret Front: The Story of Nazi Political Espionage. New York: Praeger

Höhne, Heinz (1969, 2000). The Order of The Death’s Head: The Story of Hitler’s SS. New York: Penguin Books

Krausnick, Helmut (1968) et al. Anatomie des SS-Staates. New York, Walker

Leverkuehn, Paul (1954). German Military Intelligence. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson


Collier, Richard (1958, 2001). Ten Thousand Eyes. New York: Lyons Press [New York: E. P. Dutton, 1958]

Thyraud de Vosjoli, Monique (1975). Le comité. Montréal: Éditions de l’Homme

De Vosjoli, P. L. Thyraud (1970). Lamia. Boston: Little, Brown

Stead, Philip John (1959). Second Bureau. London: Evans Brothers


Elliot, S.R. “The Canadian Intelligence Corps.” Canadian Army Journal (17, April 1963, pp. 122-27).

A brief summary artlcle.

Hahn, James Emanuel (1930). The Intelligence Service Within The Canadian Corps, 1914-1918. Toronto: Macmillan Co. of Canada


Aldouby, Zwy (1971) and Jerrold Ballinger. The Shattered Silence: The Eli Cohen Affair. New York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan

Bar-Zohar, Michael (1972). Spies in the Promised Land: Iser Harel and the Israeli Secret Service. Boston: Houghton Mifflin

Dayan, Moshe (1967). Diary of the Sinai Campaign. London, Sphere Books

Dekel, Ephraim (1959). Shai: The Exploits of Hagana Intelligence. New York and London: Thomas Yoseloff

Lotz, Wolfgang (1972). The Champagne Spy; Israel’s Master Spy Tells His Story. New York, St. Martin’s Press


Kimche, Jon (1961). Spying for Peace: General Guisan And Swiss Neutrality. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson


Deacon, Richard (1974, 1989). The Chinese Secret Service. New York: Taplinger


Seth, Ronald (1957, 1975). Secret Servants: A History of Japanese Espionage. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press

[1] Ransom, Harry Howe (1973). Strategic Intelligence. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press, p. 19

[2] Strong, Kenneth (1972). Men of Intelligence: A Study of The Roles And Decisions of Chiefs of Intelligence From World War I to The Present Day. New York: St. Martin’s Press

[3] Ransom, Harry Howe (1970). The Intelligence Establishment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press

[4] Garthoff, Raymond L. (1953). Soviet Military Doctrine. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corp [LCCN: 54018814], pp. 253-64. This study is largely a revised and extended version of … [the author’s] dissertation … Yale University

[5] Ransom, Harry Howe (1970). The Intelligence Establishment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press

[6] Ransom, Harry Howe (1970). The Intelligence Establishment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press

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One Response to Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage, And Covert Operations, chapter 4

  1. Pingback: Scientific and Technical Intelligence, Chapter 10 | Intelligence Analysis and Reporting

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