Title: Escape and Evasion, Chapter 12
Author: Paul W. Blackstock
Blackstock, Paul W. (1978) and Frank L. Schaf, Jr. “Chapter 12: “Escape and Evasion,” Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage, And Covert Operations: A Guide to Information Sources. Detroit: Gale Research Co.
Date Updated: June 16, 2016
Date Updated: July 11, 2016
Chapter 12 ESCAPE AND EVASION
World War II in Europe saw the beginning of the large-scale development of escape and evasion (E&E) as an increasingly important intelligence function. The British were the leaders in this expansion, understandably, since a program for the return of downed air crews, who represented a considerable investment in training and experience, was a matter of national necessity, Special elements of organization were set up in intelligence to plan, develop, and operate escape lines from occupied Europe, and a special research and development program was established to provide equipment and devices that would aid in escape and evasion (see Clayton Hutton, Official Secret). When the Americans entered the war, they participated in the development of E&E aids in the OSS technical equipment program and through the programs of the civilian National Defense Research Committee and the Office of Scientific Research and Development (NDRC/OSRC). Escape and evasion had different requirements in the Pacific theaters where jungle survival became part of the evolving E&E doctrine.
The literature is abundantly supplied with E&E books, mostly of British origin. However, with the Korean and Vietnam experiences, E&E books by Americans have increased in number. The best stories of escape and evasion during the Vietnam War have not yet been written.
Blair, Clay(1955). Beyond Courage. Foreword by Nathan F. Twining. New York, D. McKay Co.
Crawley, Aidan (1956). Escape From Germany: A History of RAF Escapes During The War. New York: Simon and Schuster
Howarth, David Armine (1951). Across to Norway. New York: Sloane
Hutton, Clayton (1961). Official Secret: The Remarkable Story of Escape Aids—Their Invention, Production And The Sequel. New York: Crown [London: M. Parrish, 1960]
Sunderman, James F. (1963). Air Escape And Evasion. New York: F. Watts
- S. Department of the Army (1969, 1990). Survival, Evasion, And Escape. Available from El Dorado, AR: Desert Publications
 Hutton, Clayton (1961). Official Secret: The Remarkable Story of Escape Aids—Their Invention, Production And The Sequel. New York: Crown [London: M. Parrish, 1960]