Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage, And Covert Operations, Part II

Title:                      Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage, And Covert Operations, Part II

Author:                  Paul W. Blackstock

Blackstock, Paul W. (1978) and Frank L. Schaf, Jr. Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage, And Covert Operations: A Guide to Information Sources. Detroit: Gale Research Co.,

LCCN:    74011567

Z6724.I7 B55


  • Strategic Intelligence

Date Updated:  March 10, 2017

Part II. Strategic Intelligence

In modern American usage “intelligence” or “strategic intelligence” means “evaluated or processed information about the power and intentions of foreign nations or other external phenomenon of significance in decision-making councils. Most generally the term refers to the informational needs of national government officials, particularly foreign and defense policy makers.[1]. The term is thus roughly equivalent to “foreign intelligence” as in the German, Feindnachrichtendienst. Since intelligence information is processed by bureaucracies, most general works on the subject discuss organizational needs as well as methods of collecting, processing, and disseminating information to policy makers for their use in decision making. In addition to their reporting and analytic functions, intelligence agencies also provide the policy maker with political, economic, and military estimates or assessments. In American practice these estimates include short- and long-range appraisals of the political-economic-military capabilities, vulnerabilities, intentions, and probable courses of action of other states, and are called National Intelligence Estimates. In addition to such traditional areas of appraisal, estimates concerning foreign scientific and technological developments have recently been added, and have increased in importance since World War II.

Of special interest and importance to both the general reader and the policy or decision maker are the intelligence-based studies and estimates produced by such established organizations as the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SJPRI). The London institute is international in its membership, staff, and governing council, and is independent of governments. (For a description of the work of the London institute see the article by Drew Middleton, “London Group Provides Army Intelligence to All,” New York Times, (27 December 1972.)

Much of the serious literature on intelligence has been written by American or British authors and is based on the experience of the agencies of their respective countries. However, the conclusions reached may well apply to the intelligence process and agencies of other states as well, after due allowances have been made for significant differences in the culture patterns concerned.

Chapter 4. Theory, Doctrine, and Organization

Chapter 5. Utilization of Intelligence

Chapter 6. Military Intelligence

Chapter 7. Counterintelligence and Security: United States

Chapter 8. Secrecy and Security versus Freedom of Information and the Right to Privacy

Chapter 9. Counterintelligence and Security, The USSR

Chapter 10. Scientific and Technical Intelligence

Chapter 11. Communications and Electronic Intelligence

Chapter 12. Escape and Evasion

Chapter 13. Industrial Espionage

[1] Ransom, Harry Howe (1973). Strategic Intelligence. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press [OCLC: 1972977], p. 1


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