Title: Friend or Foe?
Author: Oreste Pinto
Pinto, Oreste (1953). Friend or Foe? London: W. Laurie
Date Posted: January 26, 2017
Reviewed by Paul W. Blackstock and Frank L. Schaf
In this second book of his adventures as a counterespionage expert, Pinto has selected for description four cases which best exemplify the difficulties encountered by a counterespionage operative in discerning the truth from a mass of conflicting information, evidence, and theory. Pinto classes two of the four cases as his most difficult in more than thirty years’ experience in counterespionage; the other two as having unusual qualities that bear on technique and method. An introductory chapter details the methods of escape used by the bulk of the refugees from Occupied Europe. Pinto gathered material for this chapter while he was chief examiner at the refugee center in England at the beginning of World War II. The art of escape forms the background for the four cases selected for exposition and discussion.
 Blackstock, Paul W. (1978) and Frank L. Schaf, Jr. Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage, And Covert Operations: A Guide to Information Sources. Detroit: Gale Research Co., p. 184