Lenin

Title:                      Lenin

Author:                 Victor Sebestyen

Sebestyen, Victor (2017). Lenin: The Man, The Dictator, And The Master of Terror. New York: Pantheon

LCCN:    2017008076

DK254.L4 S34 2017

Scope and content

  • “Since the birth of Soviet Russia, Vladimir Lenin has been viewed as a controversial figure, revered and reviled for his rigid political ideals. He continues to fascinate as a man who made history, and created the first Communist state, a model that would later be imitated by nearly half the countries in the world. Drawing on new research, including the diaries, memoirs, and personal letters of both Lenin and his friends, Victor Sebestyen’s biography–the first in English in nearly two decades–is not only a political examination of one of the most important historical figures of the twentieth century, but a portrait of Lenin the man. Lenin was someone who loved nature, hunting, fishing and could identify hundreds of species of plants, a despotic ruler whose closest ties and friendships were with women. The long-suppressed story of the complex love triangle Lenin had with his wife, and his mistress and comrade, reveals a different character to the coldly one-dimensional figure of the legend. Sebestyen also reveals Lenin as a ruthless and single-minded despot and a ‘product of his time and place: a violent, tyrannical and corrupt Russia.’ He seized power in a coup, promised a revolution, a socialist utopia for the people, offered simple solutions to complex issues and constantly lied; in fact, what he created was more ‘a mirror image of the Romanov autocracy.’ He authorized the deaths of thousands of people, and created a system based on the idea that political terror against opponents was justified for the greater ideal. One of his old comrades who had once admired him said he ‘desired the good… but created evil.’ And that would include his invention of Stalin, who would take Lenin’s system of the gulag and the secret police to new heights”– Provided by publisher.

LC Subjects

Other Subjects

  • BIOGRAPHY & AUTOBIOGRAPHY / Historical.
  • HISTORY / Europe / Russia & the Former Soviet Union.

Date Posted:      December 14, 2017

Reviewed by Joseph C. Goulden[1]

Let not October pass by without proper notice of the 100th anniversary of one of the greater calamities of modern history: the seizure of control of Russia on Oct. 25, 1917, by what became the Communist Party.

As biographer Victor Sebestyen writes in his horrifying biography of Vladimir Lenin, under communism “millions of people were killed, jailed or sent into the great maw of the gulag.” The estimated body count, in Russia and the rest of the world, is in multi-digit territory.

Should we fret about communism now that the Soviet Union and its subsidiaries are defunct? Think again. Recent public opinions show that some 80 percent of Russians look with favor upon Joseph Stalin, Lenin’s successor as dictator. President Vladimir Putin recently spent millions restoring Lenin’s tomb in Moscow—an artifice that Mr. Sebestyen labels as “part shrine, part tourist trap.” Mr. Putin’s goal of “restoring Russia’s rightful grandeur” is frequently stated.

The Hungarian-born Sebestyen, a foreign correspondent for several London dailies, including the Times, the Daily Mail and the Evening Standard, traces Lenin’s origins as a member of the comfortable minor nobility. Born Vladimir Ulyanov, he was radicalized when an older brother was hanged for working against Tsar Nicholas II.

Appalled, the young man took the revolutionary name of “Lenin” (one of more than 100 pseudonyms he used over the years) and launched his career as a revolutionist. Arrested, he defended himself with an assertion oft repeated over the years: “Terror is the only form of defense, the only road individuals can take when their discontent becomes extreme.”

Sentenced to Siberia, on release he fled to Europe, spending most of 17 years in Switzerland. There he published newspapers supporting revolutionaries in Russia.

In 1913 the Tsar permitted a semblance of elective government, headed by Alexander Kerensky. But the opposition became a noisy mélange of competing factions. With World War I casualties well over a million by 1917, and inflation out of control, the inept Nicholas II lost control of the then-capital of Petrograd—essentially dethroned.

Along with other exiles, Lenin tried to meld the opposition into a unified party. After a hot debate over Marxist teachings, the faction that Lenin headed became known as the “Bolsheviks,” or majority; the remainder were the “Mensheviks.” The schism would haunt the Communist Party for decades.

As war continued, Lenin saw an opportunity. At risk of being branded as a traitor, he obtained German support to return to Russia. (Considerable money apparently went to him as well, although the exact amount is unknown.) A “sealed train” carried him through Germany and Finland to Petrograd, where he plunged into the revolution with an oratorical fervor, leading what he termed “Soviets.”

He was not universally popular. Debate foes termed him “dominating, abrasive, combative and often downright vicious.” He disdained cooperation with Kerensky. “All power must go to the Soviets,” he declared. But, as Mr. Sebestyen writes, “he had developed a voice that would revolutionize workers.”

With Kerensky’s mandate due to expire on Oct. 27, Lenin saw the chance to install his own government. By a vote of 10 to 2, the governing board of the Bolsheviks anointed him as leader, and he emerged as the dominant figure.

Generalities were his only promise. As he told future rival Leon Trotsky, “First, we must seize power. Then we decide what to do with it.”

Revolutionary betrayals began immediately. Despite his calls for “freedom for all,” he detested peasants as a class. Hence, vows of “land reform,” under which farmers would gain possession of their own land, became collective agriculture.

When farmers in the grain-rich Ukraine did not deliver the desired amounts of foodstuffs, Lenin ordered their farms seized. Thousands of families were displaced; many were killed. The resultant famine brought death to uncounted millions of persons.

Lenin detested the working class, deriding them for their “trade union consciousness.” What was needed, he declared, was a “tribune of the people.” So, a “legislative assembly” was convened. It lasted only a few hours until Lenin lost a key supporter and let it collapse.

Even more deadly, he pushed the theory that “dissent” was equivalent to treason. As Trotsky astutely observed, “When Lenin talks about the ‘’dictatorship of the proletariat’ he means the dictatorship over the proletariat.”

A free press? Censorship was imposed the second day of Lenin’s rule “to stop the torrent of filth and slander against the new order.”

Such was arguably the most evil legacy of communism—a rule that gave Lenin and subsequent dictators the authority to murder dissidents at will. As he put it, “How can you make a revolution without firing squads?”

Lenin did not anoint a successor, although his initial choice, later withdrawn, was Stalin. Nonetheless, as Victor Sebestyen writes, “Lenin created the monster, and it was his greatest crime that he was now leaving Stalin with good prospects of becoming the Soviet dictator.”

[1] Goulden, Joseph C. in The Intelligencer: Journal of U.S. Intelligence Studies (23, 2 Fall 2017, pp. ). Joseph C. Goulden is a long-time review of espionage and spy books for Intelligencer, for the Washington Times, for law journals and other publications. Some of these reviews appeared in prior editions of the Washington Times or the Washington Lawyer (DC Bar Association). Joe Gouldon’s most recent book is Goulden, Joseph C. (2012). The Dictionary of Espionage: Spyspeak into English. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications. His 1982 book, Korea: The Untold Story of the War, was published in a Chinese-language edition in 2014 by Beijing Xiron Books. He is author of 18 nonfiction books.

Posted in Russian Revolution | Tagged | 1 Comment

Whistleblower at the CIA

Title:                      Whistleblower at the CIA

Author:                 Melvin A. Goodman

Goodman, Melvin A. (2017). Whistleblower at the CIA: A Path of Dissent. San Francisco: City Lights Publishers

LCCN:    2016047282

JK468.I6 G6633 2017

Summary

Caveat. Perpendat itaque lector cavendum (civilis).[1]

  • “Mel Goodman has spent the last few decades telling us what’s gone wrong with American intelligence and the American military. He is also telling us how to save ourselves.”–Seymour M. Hersh, The New Yorker Whistleblower at the CIA offers a fascinating glimpse into the secret, behind-the-scenes world of U.S. intelligence. Melvin A. Goodman’s first-person account of the systematic manipulation of intelligence at the CIA underscores why whistleblowing is so important, and why the institutional obstacles to it are so intense. At its core it’s an invaluable historical expose, a testimony to integrity and conscience, and a call for the U.S. intelligence community to keep its top leaders in check. Urgent, timely, and deeply recommended.”–Daniel Ellsberg “In this fascinating and candid account of his years as a senior CIA analyst, Mel Goodman shows how the worst enemies of high quality intelligence can come from our own midst, and how the politicization of intelligence estimates can cause more damage to American security than its professed enemies. Whistleblower at the CIA is a must-read for anyone interested in the intricate web of intelligence-policymaking relations.”–Uri Bar-Joseph, author of The Angel: The Egyptian Spy Who Saved Israel Melvin Goodman’s long career as a respected intelligence analyst at the CIA, specializing in US/Soviet relations, ended abruptly. In 1990, after twenty-four years of service, Goodman resigned when he could no longer tolerate the corruption he witnessed at the highest levels of the Agency. In 1991 he went public, blowing the whistle on top-level officials and leading the opposition against the appointment of Robert Gates as CIA director. In the widely covered Senate hearings, Goodman charged that Gates and others had subverted “the process and the ethics of intelligence” by deliberately misinforming the White House about major world events and covert operations. In this breathtaking expose, Goodman tells the whole story. Retracing his career with the Central Intelligence Agency, he presents a rare insider’s account of the inner workings of America’s intelligence community, and the corruption, intimidation, and misinformation that lead to disastrous foreign interventions. An invaluable and historic look into one of the most secretive and influential agencies of US government—and a wake-up call for the need to reform its practices. Melvin A. Goodman served as a senior analyst and Division Chief at the CIA from 1966 to 1990. His writing has appeared in the New York Times, Washington Post, Harper’s, and many others. He is author of six books on US intelligence and international security”—Provided by publisher.
  • “The revealing story of a man with a conscience working at the CIA (1966-1990) during the height of the Cold War between Washington and Moscow, Mel Goodman settles old scores as he offers first-hand accounts of the inner workings of the CIA and how high-level officials compromise national security by pressuring those below them to support their career-advancing political agendas”— Provided by publisher.

LC Subjects

Date Posted:      December 13, 2017

Reviewed by Hayden B. Peake[2]

The writings of former senior intelligence officers deserve special attention particularly when they are also teaching intelligence-related courses at prestigious institutions. Whistleblower at the CIA is an important example. Retired CIA senior analyst Melvin Goodman claims whistleblower status “because of [his] revelations before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence during confirmation hearings for Bob Gates [as DCI].” (p. 9) In his final chapter, he adds, “I wish I had gone further as a whistleblower.” (p. 379) Whistleblower at the CIA can be seen as an attempt to fulfill that wish.

After a few words about his background and why he joined the CIA in 1968, Goodman launches a relentless and spirited attack on Congress, the Defense Department, the State Department, the Intelligence Community—including the DNI—the media, and most of all the CIA. His concerns range from corrupt behavior to politicization in intelligence matters.

Following up on a theme of his 2008 book, Failure of Intelligence: The Decline and Fall of the CIA[3] (Rowman and Littlefield), he writes in Whistleblower, “The CIA’s decline over several decades was marked by mediocre leadership, particularly by directors such as William Casey, Robert Gates, Porter Goss, and George Tenet, who tailored intelligence to satisfy the neoconservative biases” of presidents Reagan and George W. Bush. And “Tenet and Goss, as well as Michael Hayden and John Brennan, endorsed barbaric interrogations methods, and Brennan tried to block the Senate Intelligence Committee’s investigation of torture in secret prisons.” (p. 21) Later, Goodman returns to the topic of CIA directors, labeling Generals Hayden and Petraeus “unsuited to lead the CIA,” adding that John Brennan “lied to the chair of the Senate Intelligence Committee,” and then criticizing President Obama for “selecting CIA chiefs, considering the disappointment of Panetta, Petraeus, and Brennan.” (pp. 270-271)

Other topics subjected to Goodman’s hostile scrutiny include the chapter on “CIA’s Double Standards and Double Dealing,” a discussion on the “lack of internal oversight … [and] the demise of the Office of the Inspector General and the virtual disappearance of the statutory inspector general” (p. 214); the myth that the Intelligence Community functions like a community (p. 230); the unwillingness of the press “to adequately question and investigate government” (p. 313); the preferential treatment given some members of the press (pp. 324-327); and the willingness of some in the media to succumb to CIA pressure. Even Steven Colbert—”(or his lawyers)”—is included. (p. 332)

But Goodman reserves most of his bitterness for Bob Gates, to whom he gives indirect credit for his whistleblower status. This criticism of Gates is focused in Chapter Eight, where he explains how the two met in 1968 and why they drifted apart. Goodman depicts Gates as complicit in CIA’s institutionalized politicization of intelligence, fueled internally by corrupt officers from the top down—a harsh judgment, coming from an “insider” who left the agency over three decades ago.

What has been quoted above is but a small sample of the Goodman’s explicit dissatisfaction with the Intelligence Community, its elements, its personnel, and its performance. The only personnel who are uniformly praised are his fellow whistleblowers, from Ellsberg to Snowden. Goodman concludes with the unsupported comment that “as long as the secret government manages to operate beyond the law and allows former officials such as Mike Morell, Jose Rodriguez, and John McLaughlin to lie about illegalities and abuse, the Agency will remain an enemy of democracy—and I will champion the path of dissent.” (p. 379)

Readers who encounter Goodman’s doggedly negative opinions of the CIA and the Intelligence Com-munity should note the absence of any contrary views.

[1] On occasion, personal loyalties and opinions can be carved in stone and defended with a vengeance — at times with some venom thrown in. In these situations, the actual importance of the subject matter is dwarfed by the amount of aggression expressed. Retain a sense of proportion in all online and in-person discussions. [From The Intelligencer: Journal of U. S. Intelligence Studies.]

[2] Peake, Hayden in The Intelligencer: Journal of U.S. Intelligence Studies (23, 2 Fall 2017, p. 117). Hayden Peake is the Curator of the CIA’s Historical Intelligence Collection. He has served in the Directorate of Science and Technology and the Directorate of Operations. Most of these reviews appeared in recent unclassified editions of CIA’s Studies in Intelligence, Other reviews and articles may be found online at http://www.cia.gov

[3] Goodman, Melvin A. (2008). Failure of Intelligence: The Decline And Fall of The CIA. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield

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Practise to Deceive

Title:                      Practise to Deceive

Author:                 Barton Whaley

Whaley, Barton (2016). Practise to Deceive: Learning Curves of Military Deception Planners. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press

LCCN:    2015035352

U167.5.D37 .W53 2016

LC Subjects

Date Posted:      December 12, 2017

Reviewed by Hayden B. Peake[1]

Denis Clift, president emeritus of the National Intelligence University, writes in the book’s introduction that “the most important readings” in advanced denial and deception are the writings of Barton Whaley. One of the teaching techniques Whaley employed involved practical exercises, using actual case studies. Practise to Deceive contains 88 of those studies with detailed analysis of their objectives and application.

The case studies are typically one to five pages in length and contain examples from Sun Tzu to the first Iraq war in 1991. They are arranged in four categories: the first three consider learning, planning, and seeking approval for specific operations from the working level; the fourth looks at these factors from an institutional point of view. Cases are presented chronologically within each topic.

For example, case #2 deals with tactical deception measures employed by Gen. Lord Roberts, when his army relieved the siege of Kimberly during the second Boer War. Whaley notes that Roberts’ intelligence officer, Lt. Col. G. F. R. Henderson, based his recommendations for deception on lessons drawn from his study of Stonewall Jackson’s operations during the US Civil War. Operation ERROR (case #15, pp. 39-42) is concerned with deception operations in the India-Burma theater—planned and conducted by Col. Peter Fleming (Ian’s brother).

Three interesting cases (numbers 19, 52, and 53) involve British scientist R. V. Jones, including his discussion of the “Theory of Practical Joking and the Theory of Spoof,” and his contribution to defeating the Luftwaffe during the Battle of Britain.

Whaley also includes two controversial cases. The first concerns “Maj. Meinertzhagen and the Haversack Legend, Palestine 1917.” Meinertzhagen was Gen. Allenby’s intelligence officer, “who plagiarized a real plan and pretended to carry it out—thereby fabricating the celebrated legend of the ‘Meinertzhagen Haversack Ruse.’”[2] (pp. 75-76)

The second and even more controversial case involves Lawrence of Arabia’s exploits, that Whaley labels “a myth.” (p. 80) But he doesn’t stop there. “Simply put,” he writes, “Lawrence was a con man whose deceptions were directed more against allies than foes.” (p. 81) Curiously, one of his sources is the unreliable Menertzhagen. Thus readers are cautioned against accepting these views without consulting the great volume of evidence to the contrary.

The more recent case studies include “General Schwarzkopf’s Deception Planners, Iraq 1991” and “Jody Powell and the Iranian Rescue Mission, 1980.” (pp. 245-246).

Two of four appendices examine the deception planning for operation Barbarossa, Hitler’s preparation for invading the Soviet Union. Another examines Operation CLOAK, the British deception plans against the Japanese in Burma. The fourth lists other important operation—for example, Operation BODYGUARD, prior to the invasion of Europe in World War II, and source material for further study.

Overall, Practice to Deceive is an interesting and valuable account of deception theory in practice.

[1] Peake, Hayden in The Intelligencer: Journal of U.S. Intelligence Studies (23, 2 Fall 2017, pp. 116-117). Hayden Peake is the Curator of the CIA’s Historical Intelligence Collection. He has served in the Directorate of Science and Technology and the Directorate of Operations. Most of these reviews appeared in recent unclassified editions of CIA’s Studies in Intelligence, Other reviews and articles may be found online at http://www.cia.gov

[2] In his published post-war diaries, Meinertzhagen claimed to have placed false war plans in a haversack that successfully deceived the Turks as to the location of the main attack into Palestine. For example see Meinertzhagen, Richard (1960, 1959). Middle East Diary, 1917-1956. New York: Yoseloff [LCCN: 60013137]. Lockman showed that to be a false claim, but the myth has persisted. See J. N. Lockman, Meinertzhagen’s Diary Ruse: False Entries an T. E. Lawrence (1870; reprinted Grand Rapids,k MI: Cornerstone Publications, 1995). For another view, see Capstick, Peter A. (1998) and Fiona Capstick (1999). Warrior: The Legend of Colonel Richard Meinertzhagen. New York: St. Martin’s Press

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Code Girls

Title:                      Code Girls

Author:                 Liza Mundy

Mundy, Liza (2017). Code Girls: The Untold Story of The American Women Code Breakers Who Helped Win World War II. New York: Hachette Books

LCCN:    2017020069

D810.C88 M86 2017

Contents

  • Introduction: your country needs you, young ladies — Part I. In the event of total war women will be needed — Twenty-eight acres of girls — This is a man’s size job but I seem to be getting away with it — The most difficult problem — So many girls in one place — Part II. Over all this vast expanse of water Japan was supreme — It was heart-rending — Q for communications — The forlorn shoe — Hell’s half-acre — It’s only human to complain — Pencil-pushing mamas sink the shipping of Japan — Part III. The tide turns — Sugar camp — All my love, Jim — Enemy landing at the mouth of the Seine — Teedy — The missionary and the surrender message — The train platform — Epilogue.

LC Subjects

Date Posted:      December 8, 2017

Reviewed by Meryl Gordon[1]

In the fall of 1941, mysterious letters appeared in the mailboxes of a select group of young women attending the Seven Sister colleges. Chosen for their aptitude in such subjects as math, English, history, foreign languages and astronomy, the women were invited to meet one-on-one with senior professors. At Wellesley, the students were asked unusual questions: Did they like doing crossword puzzles, and did they have imminent wedding plans?

Those women who gave the right answers—yes, and no—were asked to sign confidentiality agreements and join a hush-hush government project. With war raging in Europe, the United States Navy had been staffing up its cryptanalysis division for several years but this was a new recruiting strategy. The female undergrads were offered campus training in code breaking, with the promise of government civilian jobs in Washington upon graduation.

In the months after the bombing of Pearl Harbor and America’s entry into World War II, such a patriotic summons became more urgent. Not only did the Navy reach out to women from a wider range of colleges but the Army began ramping up its own rival code-breaking unit. After Army brass were chastised for competing with the Navy for the same female campus talent pool, the Army switched tactics and sought out small-town schoolteachers eager to participate in the war effort and take part in a big-city adventure.

In Liza Mundy’s prodigiously researched and engrossing new book, Code Girls: The Untold Story of the American Women Code Breakers of World War II, she describes the experiences of several thousand American women who spent the war years in Washington, untangling the clandestine messages sent by the Japanese and German militaries and diplomatic corps. At a time when even well-educated women were not encouraged to have careers—much less compete with men to demonstrate their mastery of arcane, technical skills—this hiring frenzy represented a dramatic shift. The same social experiment was simultaneously unfolding on the other side of the Atlantic. The British debutantes and their middle-class peers recruited to work at the secret Bletchley Park code-breaking operation came to outnumber the men.

In an era when history is being updated to reflect the math and science accomplishments of 20th-century women with such accounts as Margot Lee Shetterly’s Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race[2], Mundy’s book offers valuable insights and information about those unsung women who made crucial contributions during wartime.

Their work was often mind-numbingly tedious and frustrating as the women spent 12-hour days and seven-day weeks in steamy offices staring at incomprehensible columns of numbers and letters and trying to decipher patterns. They learned to recognize ciphers—where one letter is substituted for another letter or number—and to interpret “additives,” extra numbers thrown in to stump prying eyes. They built and operated “bombe” machines to decode the thousands of German messages sent out via the complex Enigma machine, work that was done in conjunction with Bletchley Park.

Mundy’s narrative turns thrilling as she chronicles the eureka moments when the women succeed in cracking codes, relying on a mixture of mathematical expertise, memorization and occasional leaps of intuition. Thanks to their efforts in retrieving and passing along vital information about enemy battle plans and the whereabouts of Japanese vessels, the American military was able to sink enemy supply ships, shoot down enemy planes and blunt attacks on American targets. This was emotionally fraught work since the women occasionally learned, in advance, that the Japanese had targeted ships in regions where their loved ones were serving. As Mundy writes, “Some of the women broke messages warning about attacks before they happened but were helpless to avert them.”

In the run-up to the D-Day landing in Normandy, the women were also charged with creating phony coded American messages to deceive the Germans about the site of the invasion.

A former Washington Post reporter, Mundy was inspired to tackle this book after her husband, Mark Bradley, a veteran Justice Department official, read a declassified World War II document about a counterintelligence operation, which noted that many women schoolteachers worked on the project.

The author of three previous books that touch on feminist themes, Mundy paints a vivid portrait of the daily lives of these energetic single young women—the upheaval and challenges of adjusting to the high-pressure military environment, the condescension and sexism from male colleagues and superiors, the cramped living quarters, the constant anxiety over brothers and boyfriends in harm’s way, the wartime romances, weekend high jinks and stress-related breakdowns.

Three-quarters of a century later, with firsthand recollections of World War II vanishing daily in the obituary columns, Mundy was able to track down and interview more than 20 former code breakers such as Ann Caracristi, an English major at Russell Sage College who turned out to be such a problem-solving prodigy that as a 23-year-old she became the head of an Army research unit. Dorothy Braden Bruce, a 97-year-old former Virginia schoolteacher known as Dot, described the tense experience of decoding urgent data from Japanese supply ships and also offered up amusing and poignant details about wartime life.

These accounts are supplemented by numerous oral histories, declassified documents and exhaustive research at the National Archives. Mundy delves deeply into a transitional pre-Betty Friedan moment in American life when institutional discrimination was the norm. As she points out, a 1941 Navy memo proposed paying female clerks, typists and stenographers $1,440 per year, while men in the same posts were to receive $1,620. The gap grew even larger higher up the ladder: Female Ph.D.s were slated for $2,300 salaries compared with $3,200 for their male counterparts.

The author unearths the stories of pioneers like Agnes Meyer Driscoll, a math, physics and language whiz who joined the Navy in 1917, broke Japanese codebooks in the 1920s and ‘30s and went on to train a generation of male code breakers, only to be patronized and pushed aside during World War II. The talented cryptologist Elizebeth Smith Friedman was hired by the Coast Guard in 1927 to break the code of rumrunners and went on to work for other federal agencies, designing the codes used by the Office of Strategic Services, the predecessor to the C.I.A. Yet her husband, the Army code breaker William Friedman, was sometimes given credit for her work.

In her effort to cram in an enormous amount of information and give so many women their due, Mundy’s book suffers at times since it’s hard to keep track of her vast cast of characters, many with similar backgrounds. As their stories began to blur, I found myself frequently flipping back to remind myself who was who. When she attempts to tell the tale thematically, her time-shifting can be confusing. At the end of Part Two of the book, it’s the summer of 1944, the United States military has just retaken Guam and Dot Braden is feeling optimistic that the Allies are doing well in the Pacific. When Part Three begins a few pages later, we’re back in 1943; then the story abruptly zigs to dismal times in 1942.

At the end of the war, virtually all of the female code breakers were given their walking papers and returned to civilian life. Only a few superstars were asked to stay on (among them Caracristi, who went on to become the first female deputy director of the National Security Agency).

For these accomplished and resourceful women, who had been given a heady taste of professional success, it was jarring to have to fight to be accepted to top graduate programs on the G.I. Bill or embark on traditional paths as wives and mothers. Warned not to reveal their secret wartime lives, many remained silent about their valuable service. Thanks to Mundy’s book, which deftly conveys both the puzzle-solving complexities and the emotion and drama of this era, their stories will live on.

[1] Meryl Gordon, the director of magazine writing at N.Y.U.’s Arthur L. Carter Journalism Institute, is the author of Bunny Mellon: The Life of an American Style Legend. A version of this review appears in print on November 12, 2017, on Page BR14 of the New York Times Sunday Book Review with the headline: “Rosie the Cryptographer”.

[2] Shetterly, Margot Lee (2016). Hidden Figures: The Untold True Story of Four African-American Women Who Helped Launch Our Nation into Space. New York, NY: William Morrow

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Global Intelligence Oversight

Title:                      Global Intelligence Oversight

Author:                 Zachary K. Goldman

Goldman, Zachary K. (2016) and Samuel J. Rascoff, eds. Global Intelligence Oversight: Governing Security in The Twenty-First Century. New York, NY: Oxford University Press

LCCN:    2015051038

K3278 .G56 2016

Contents

  • Intelligence services, peer constraints, and the law / by Ashley Deeks — Oversight through five eyes : institutional convergence and the structure and oversight of intelligence activities / by Richard Morgan — Oversight of intelligence agencies : the European dimension / by Iain Cameron — Global change and megatrends : implications for intelligence and its oversight / by Christopher A. Kojm — The FISC’s stealth administrative law / by Daphna Renan — In law we trust : the Israeli case of overseeing intelligence / by Raphael Bitton — Review and oversight of intelligence in Canada : expanding accountability gaps / by Kent Roach — The emergence of intelligence governance / by Zachary K. Goldman — The president as intelligence overseer / by Samuel J. Rascoff — Intelligence oversight : made in Germany / by Russell A. Miller — Intelligence powers and accountability in the U.K. / by Jon Moran and Clive Walker — Executive oversight of intelligence agencies in Australia / by Keiran Hardy and George Williams.

LC Subjects

Date Posted:      December 7, 2017

Reviewed by Hayden B. Peake[1]

Of the 15 contributors to this volume, 11 are lawyers, all are academics, and none claim any professional experience in the intelligence profession. They come from seven countries: Australia, Germany, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Israel, Canada, and the United States. Oversight in each nation is discussed, and one contribution considers it in the “Five Eyes” context. In her preface, former Congresswoman Jane Harmon writes that “the world wants to know … who is watching the watchmen?” Oversight is her answer. (p. xiv) To illustrate that oversight works, she cites “the inspiring example” of the Senate Intelligence Committee’s report on CIA interrogation techniques. (p. xv) She admits that Congress can do better,” suggesting that “members ask spies the tough questions every chance we get.” (p. xvi, emphasis added.)

Global Intelligence Oversight gives an overview of how oversight has developed and how it is currently working. Compared to the United States, “parliamentary oversight across the liberal democratic world is not as robust,” (p. xix) the editors assert. Several contributors expand on this point. More generally, they “offer insights into the purposes intelligence oversight may serve beyond legal compliance.” (p. xxvi)

As might be expected from lawyers, the descriptions and recommendations concerning oversight are not always expressed in simple declarative sentences. For example, in an otherwise informative study, on “Oversight Through Five Eyes,” the author argues that “the similarity of intelligence structures and oversight across the Five Eyes states is neither coincidental nor unintentional. Rather it is the result of a phenomenon of isomorphic ‘institutional convergence’ that results in homogenization of state practices across a wide variety of contexts …” (p. 38) He argues that the process of isomorphic convergence has resulted in a model that could become an “international norm for intelligence oversight.” (p. 70)

In addition to chapters on oversight in the countries named above, other topics include global technical changes under way in government and industry, the legal aspects of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, and the challenging issues associated with oversight within the European Union. The chapter entitled “The President as Intelligence Overseer” surprises no one by concluding that “the White House ought to be an object, not a source, of intelligence oversight.” (p. 235)

Global Intelligence Oversight does leave some issues for the future. For instance, the term oversight is never defined, which makes it difficult to identify the line between oversight and management. Likewise, there is the implicit assumption that the legislative branch of government is the proper body to conduct oversight, as opposed to an independent joint commission of experts. Finally, one may reasonably ask whether the conference from which the book emerged would have benefited from the contributions of an experienced career intelligence officer.

[1] Peake, Hayden in The Intelligencer: Journal of U.S. Intelligence Studies (23, 2 Fall 2017, pp. 115-116). Hayden Peake is the Curator of the CIA’s Historical Intelligence Collection. He has served in the Directorate of Science and Technology and the Directorate of Operations. Most of these reviews appeared in recent unclassified editions of CIA’s Studies in Intelligence, Other reviews and articles may be found online at http://www.cia.gov

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Hidden Figures

Title:                      Hidden Figures

Author:                 Margot Lee Shetterly

Shetterly, Margot Lee (2016). Hidden Figures: The Untold True Story of Four African-American Women Who Helped Launch Our Nation into Space. New York, NY: William Morrow

LCCN:    2016021050

QA27.5 .L44 2016

Summary

  • Before John Glenn orbited the Earth or Neil Armstrong walked on the moon, a group of professionals worked as “Human Computers,” calculating the flight paths that would enable these historic achievements. Among these were a coterie of bright, talented African-American women. Segregated from their white counterparts by Jim Crow laws, these “colored computers,” as they were known, used slide rules, adding machines, and pencil and paper to support America’s fledgling aeronautics industry, and helped write the equations that would launch rockets, and astronauts, into space. Drawing on the oral histories of scores of these “computers,” personal recollections, interviews with NASA executives and engineers, archival documents, correspondence, and reporting from the era, Hidden Figures recalls America’s greatest adventure and NASA’s groundbreaking successes through the experiences of five spunky, courageous, intelligent, determined, and patriotic women: Dorothy Vaughan, Mary Jackson, Katherine Johnson, Christine Darden, and Gloria Champine. Moving from World War II through NASA’s golden age, touching on the civil rights era, the Space Race, the Cold War, and the women’s rights movement, Hidden Figures interweaves a history of scientific achievement and technological innovation with the intimate stories of five women whose work forever changed the world — and whose lives show how out of one of America’s most painful histories came one of its proudest moments.

Contents

  • Setting the scene — A door opens — Mobilization — A new Beginning — The double V — The “colored” computers — War birds — The duration — Breaking barriers — No limits — The area rule — An exceptional mind — Turbulence — Progress — Young, gifted, and black — What a difference a day makes — Writing the textbook on space — With all deliberate speed — Model behavior — Degrees of freedom — Out of the past, the future — America is for everybody — One small step.

LC Subjects

Other Subjects

  • United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration–Biography–Juvenile literature.
  • United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  • African American women–Biography–Juvenile literature.
  • Space race–Juvenile literature.
  • Women mathematicians–United States–Biography–Juvenile literature.
  • Employees.
  • African American mathematicians.
  • African American women.
  • Space race.
  • Women mathematicians.
  • United States.

Date Posted:      December 7, 2017

Reviewed by Cara Buckley[1]

Growing up in Hampton, Virginia in the 1970s, in the shadow of Langley Research Center, where workers helped revolutionize air flight and put Americans on the moon, Margot Lee Shetterly had a pretty fixed idea of what scientists looked like: They were middle class, African-American and worked at NASA, like her dad.

It would be years before she learned that this was far from the American norm. And that many women in her hometown defied convention, too, by having vibrant, and by most standards, unusual careers.

Black and female, dozens had worked at the space agency as mathematicians, often under Jim Crow laws, calculating crucial trajectories for rockets while being segregated from their white counterparts. For decades, as the space race made heroes out of lantern-jawed astronauts, the stories of those women went largely untold.

Four of them are the subjects of Ms. Shetterly’s first book, Hidden Figures. The book garnered an early burst of attention because its movie version, starring Taraji P. Henson, Octavia Spencer and Janelle Monáe, was scheduled for a year-end [2016] release and set for an Oscars run. The movie rights were snapped up weeks after Ms. Shetterly sold her book proposal in 2014, and well before she started writing the book in earnest, a disorientingly fast, if exhilarating, turn.

“The thrilling thing to me about the book, and the movie, is this is an American story that we’re getting to see through the faces of these women,” Ms. Shetterly said during a recent visit to Hampton, which sits on the southeastern end of the Virginia Peninsula, surrounded by aquamarine waters and Navy ships. “It’s just as American a story as if it were John Glenn or Alan Shepard telling it.”

Ms. Shetterly happened upon the idea for the book in 2010, when she and her husband, Aran Shetterly, then living in Mexico, were visiting her parents here. The couple and Ms. Shetterly’s father were driving around in his minivan when he mentioned, very casually, that one of Ms. Shetterly’s former Sunday school teachers had worked as a mathematician at NASA, and that another woman she knew calculated rocket trajectories for famous astronauts.

Ms. Shetterly remembers her husband perking up and asking why he had never heard this tale before. “I knew women who worked at NASA as mathematicians and engineers,” Ms. Shetterly said, “but it took someone from the outside saying, ‘Wait a minute’ for me to see the story there.”

(A book on a similar topic, Nathalia Holt’s Rise of the Rocket Girls[2], about women working at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the ’40s and ’50s, was published in April.)

Two of the women she would focus on are still living in the area. Christine Darden, now 73 and retired, had worked her way out of NASA’s computing pool to lead engineering research into sonic booms. Katherine Johnson, who recently turned 98, lives in a retirement home with her husband of 57 years, James A. Johnson, and is enjoying a recent surge of fame. She calculated rocket trajectories for the Mercury and Apollo missions, and last year President Obama personally awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom for her life’s work.

Mrs. Darden and Mrs. Johnson still socialize, and on a recent summer day, made meltingly hot by a heat wave, met to play bridge at Mrs. Johnson’s apartment. (Mrs. Johnson and her partner won.) Ms. Shetterly was visiting too, and presented both women with an early copy of her book. “Fantastic,” Mrs. Darden said, as Mrs. Johnson, whose eyesight is failing, peered at the cover with a slight smile.

Yet asked how she felt about the coming film, in which she is played by Ms. Henson, in the starring role, Mrs. Johnson became solemn. (Mrs. Darden is not portrayed onscreen, as the film focuses on the years preceding her arrival at NASA.)

“I shudder,” Mrs. Johnson said. She had heard, she said, that the movie might stretch the facts, and that her character possibly came across as aggressive. “I was never aggressive,” Mrs. Johnson said.

Ms. Shetterly reminded Mrs. Johnson of her persistence in the late 1950s, when she successfully pressed her supervisor into admitting her into traditionally all-male meetings. “You took matters in your own hands,” Ms. Shetterly said. “For other women, it was a revelation.”

Ms. Johnson said: “Well, I don’t ever wait for something. I remember asking the question, ‘Is there a law?’ And he said, ‘Let her go.’ It was easier than arguing.”

Listening in, one of Mrs. Johnson’s health aides chuckled. “Yep,” he said, “That’s the Katherine Johnson I know.”

Though outwardly their stories are remarkable, both Mrs. Darden and Mrs. Johnson remained matter-of-fact when describing their careers, an attitude that seems to have prevailed among their peers. Ann Hammond, whose mother, Dorothy Vaughan, was one of the first black women to be hired by what was then called the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, or NACA, in 1943, said her mother never wanted a pat on the back. Mrs. Vaughan died in 2005 at the age of 98, and is played in the film by Octavia Spencer.

“My mother would’ve probably said, ‘I was just doing my job,’” Ms. Hammond, 80, said, speaking in the Hampton bungalow where she grew up with her five siblings.

But what jobs they were. While military budget cuts and sequestration have hurt the economy here in recent decades, some 75 years ago the hungry wartime machine needed manpower, and womanpower, to fill its depleted ranks. This helped open the door for black female mathematicians, who were recruited through job bulletin boards and newspaper ads. Their job title? “Colored computers.”

Mrs. Johnson, a math savant, graduated summa cum laude from what is now West Virginia State University at 18, and heard about the job through a family connection. Mrs. Darden, who went to college at Hampton Institute and earned a master’s degree in math at Virginia State College, was hired to be a NASA data analyst out of graduate school in 1967, and went on to become an aerospace engineer.

The military boom lasted for decades, allowing the women and their families to have what Ms. Hammond described as a good life, despite enduring the indignities of segregation in the early years—working, eating and using restrooms apart from white colleagues.

Ms. Shetterly discovered in her research that the space agency’s leaders were well aware of the negative effects of segregation. As Virginia began vigorously fighting public school desegregation in 1956, one higher up worried about the face that the United States, with its roiling racial problems, was presenting to the world, using words that still have resonance today.

“In trying to provide leadership in world events, it is necessary for this country to indicate to the world that we practice equality for all within this country,” NACA’s chief counsel, Paul Dembling, wrote in a file memo that year. Two years later, the segregated computing pool was disbanded.

Through it all, by most accounts, the black women at NASA held their heads high.

“Her whole life, my mother never felt superior and never felt less than anybody else,” said Joylette Hylick, the eldest of Mrs. Johnson’s three daughters. “She didn’t let it get in her way.”

[1] Cara Buckley. A version of this article appears in print in The New York Times on September 6, 2016, on Page C1 of the New York edition with the headline: “Space Race Math Whizzes Hidden From History”.

[2] Holt, Nathalia (2016). Rise of The Rocket Girls: The Women Who Propelled Us, from Missiles to The Moon to Mars. New York: Little, Brown and Company

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Al-Qaeda’s Revenge

Title:                      Al-Qaeda’s Revenge

Author:                 Fernando Reinares

Reinares, Fernando (2016). Al-Qaeda’s Revenge: The 2004 Madrid Train Bombings. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press; New York: Columbia University Press

LCCN:    2016043284

HV6433.S7 R4513 2016

Date Posted:      December 6, 2017

Reviewed by Hayden B. Peake[1]

Fernando Reinares is the director of the Program on Global Terrorism at the Elcano Royal Institute and professor of political science and security studies at the Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, both in Madrid. The focus of his research is on individual jihadists, their motivations, and the networks that link them. In Al-Qaeda’s Revenge, he tells how those responsible for bombing commuter trains near Madrid on 11 March 2004, killing 191 people and wounding 1841, were identified as part of the global threat from al-Qa`ida’s jihadist terrorism.

Immediately after the 3/11 bombings, the government blamed ETA (Euskadi to Askatasuna), the Basque separatist organization in Spain. An investigation soon discredited this conclusion and blamed the attack on local radicals who had little or no connection to an outside organization. Mr. Reinares’ analysis, however, disproved this result and established that the attacks were conducted by a coalition of several terror groups under al-Qa`ida’s direction.

The original Qa`ida cell in Spain was created in 1994 (p. 8) and it helped the 9/11 attackers in the planning phase. Most but not all of them were arrested by Spanish authorities after 9/11;.the group’s leader, Abu Dandah and at least four others remained ,at large. (p. 9) In the first part of Al-Qaeda’s Revenge, Mr. Reinares shows how the remnants formed links with groups from Algeria and Morocco to create the 3/11 network. Part 2 discusses why Spain was selected, the decisionmakers—Abu Dandah and others involved, the connection between the 3/11 network and the al-Qa`ida command center in Pakistan, why the 3/11 bombings did not constitute a suicide attack (though some involved later martyred themselves) and the social and political consequences of the bombings.

Al-Qaeda’s Revenge also describes the bombers’ connections in London, Milan, Belgium, and Indonesia, as well as what happened to those who left Spain after 3/11. The intent of al-Qa`ida’s global ambitions and the complexity of its worldwide structure becomes apparent as Mr. Reinares names the many participants and examines their relationships. He also discusses the intelligence exchanges between US and Spanish authorities as each worked to track the terrorists involved. (pp. 91-92)

In his foreword to Al-Qaeda’s Revenge, former CIA officer Bruce Riedel, now with the Brookings Institution, characterizes the book as “one of the most important … written on the subject of radical Islamic terrorism in Europe and North America since 9/11.” (p. xiv) Riedel gives it high marks for the depth of research, the quality of analysis, and the accuracy of its often complex results. Right on all counts.

[1] Peake, Hayden in The Intelligencer: Journal of U.S. Intelligence Studies (23, 2 Fall 2017, p. 115). Hayden Peake is the Curator of the CIA’s Historical Intelligence Collection. He has served in the Directorate of Science and Technology and the Directorate of Operations. Most of these reviews appeared in recent unclassified editions of CIA’s Studies in Intelligence, Other reviews and articles may be found online at http://www.cia.gov

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